A Fusion Reactor

Experiments

See reasoning to find the object and theory of all these experiments.

Experiments 7/11/2008

Central Force in Solenoid carrying alternating current 2006

Object

This experiment was to see if there was a central force in a conducting coil carrying alternating current on a conducting loop inside the coil.

This is important for maintaining a stable plasma inside a coil.

Method

To see if there was a central force in a coil carrying alternating current with a current loop inside I used a loop of wire suspended in a transformer coil with a micro balance to measure the force. I found that with a current of 400 mA at to Hz in a coil of 500 turns that the force on a loop of wire suspended near the above then below the axis of the coil was 2 mg towards the axis.

 

 

Overview of experiment.

Detail of loop suspended between two coils.

Result

A force of about 2 mg (1.96x10-5 N) was found toward the axis.

Conclusion:

There was a central force in a coil carrying alternating current on a conductor inside the coil.

Experiment to see if I could ionise Hydrogen in  a Pyrex tubes (2007)

Object

This experiment was to see if I could ionise hydrogen inside a coil carrying alternating current and to see if the resulting ionised gas remained near the axis of the tube.

Method:

To test my theory I purchased some low pressure hydrogen tubes. Three of 3 Tor and three of 0.001 Tor. At first I tried a transistor circuit running at 12 volts with the tube inside the coil of a Hartley oscillator. Neither the 3 Tor nor the 0.001 Tor hydrogen   ionised.

So I tried a single pulse from a 12 volt 10 amp supply and still the hydrogen did not ionise.

Result

I could not ionise the hydrogen

Conclusion:

There was insufficient power to ionise hydrogen

Experiment with Hartley Oscillator March 2008

Object

To see that if I increased the power of the oscillator I could ionise hydrogen.

Method

So I tried a valve oscillator with an anode potential of 450 volts. Still the hydrogen did not ionise. Again I tried both pressures

The circuit I'm using with a switch instead of a Morse key

General view showing oscillator and power supply

Shows underside of circuit

Here a Fluorescent tube is lit. The hydrogen tube fits in here.

In each case I tried both tubes.

Result:

I could not ionise the hydrogen

Conclusion

There was insufficient power to ionise hydrogen.

Experiment with high voltage source October 2008

Object

To ionise hydrogen using a high voltage source

Method

Since the first stage is to ionise the hydrogen I purchased a low pressure hydrogen tube with electrodes and used  a high voltage source to ionise the hydrogen. I was successful in ionising the hydrogen.

Result

I was able to ionise hydrogen

Conclusion:

A high voltage is required to ionise hydrogen.

 

 

Experiment to see if plasma is effected by current loop October 2008

Object

To see if ionised hydrogen is repelled and held near the axis by a coil carrying alternating current.

Method

I would a coil round the tube and connected a capacitor across it. This tuned circuit resonated as the pulses of high voltage hit the tube. The plasma was pushed away from the wires as predicted by theory.

I did some experiments using a loop of wire inside a transformer winding and found that with alternating current flowing in the winding the loop of wire experienced a small force towards the centre. This shows that a coil may be used to contain ionised gas. The current in the winding repels the current in the gas and so keeps it away from the wall and any drift away from the axis is instantly corrected because the force of repulsion is stronger near the windings.

Result

The ionised gas is repelled by the coil carrying alternating current.

Conclusion

A coil may be used to contain ionised gas

Experiment with hydrogen tube in microwave oven October 2008

Object

To see if higher powers of radio frequency energy would ionise hydrogen

Method

I put the tube of low pressure (0.001 Tor) hydrogen in an 850 watt microwave oven for ten seconds and here the hydrogen ionised and the tube got very hot.

I tried with hydrogen at 3 Tor in my 850 watt microwave oven for ten seconds. The hydrogen did not ionise and the tube did not get warm.

Result:

It is possible to ionise hydrogen with RF energy

Conclusion:

RF energy may be used to heat and ionise hydrogen.

Note: The colour of the light from the tube changed from pink to yellow during the experiment.

Experiment with oscillator 8-11-2008

Object

To see if the hydrogen tube increases the power of an oscillator

Method

I put a one turn winding on the coil to connect to a power meter and dummy load so I can measure the power of the oscillator to see if the hydrogen tube increases the power. If oscillations are maintained then I can measure the power produced by the fusion reaction.

Page of photographs of oscillator

I am awaiting new low pressure hydrogen tubes at present (10^-5 Tor and 10^-7 Tor).

Result:

I could not ionise the hydrogen

Conclusion

The oscillator had insufficient power to ionise hydrogen.

Experiment with metal in oscillator coil 9-11-2008

Object

I wanted to test the effect of a conductor inside the coil to simulate plasma. I wanted to see if a conductor placed inside an inductor would change its inductance.

 

Method

The coil is 30 mm in diameter and 10 cm long.

Without the metal tube the frequency was 2.67 MHz amplitude 80 volts at the terminals

I put a copper tube 16.5 mm diameter 2 cm long into the oscillator coil.

Frequency: 2.72 MHz, amplitude 60 volts at the terminal. The copper tube was warmed.

I put an aluminium tube 8 mm in diameter that took up the length of the coil (10 cm) into the coil, the amplitude was 52 volts and the frequency 2.74 Hz and the tube got hot.

Copper tube 13 mm diameter, full length of coil, amplitude: 64 volt frequency: 2.98 MHz

Aluminium tube 19 mm diameter full length of coil, amplitude: 2.3 volt, frequency: 45 MHz

The frequency is proportional to 1/√(1-Ap/Ac) according to theory so:

Diameter Area Tube Coil Area 1/√(1-Ap/Ac) F0 F Calculated F measured
8mm 50 706 1.037 2.67MHz 2.76MHz 2.74MHz
13mm 132 706 1.109 2.67MHz 2.96MHz 2.98MHz
19mm 283 706 1.29 2.67MHz 3.44MHz 45MHz

The table shows that the inductance changed as predicted for small tube areas but when the tube area got close to the area to the coil area the inductance dropped a lot more than predicted.

The resistivity of aluminium is higher than copper so has a higher loss, accounting for the lower values of the amplitude when aluminium (alloy) was used.

So the inductance changed and the coil was loaded.

Result

The conducting tube inside the coil did not stop the coil oscillating but changed the frequency and amplitude of the oscillator.

Conclusion

The experiment showed that the effect of a conductor such as ionised gas that varied in size would effect the inductance and therefore allow the plasma to couple electrically to the coil making energy transfer from hot plasma to the coil possible.

 

Power of oscillator measurement

Object

To measure the power of my oscillator.

Method

I measured the power of the oscillator with a 1 turn winding feeding a power and VSWR meter. There was no dummy load. The power meter read 4 watt with infinite VSWR.

Power measurement

I found the power output with the fluorescent tube in the coil and lit was 4 watt, when I took the tube out the power output increased to 4.5 watt.

 

I therefore surmise that the fluorescent tube took 0.5 watt.

 

A fluorescent tube is lit by ionised gas. It did not short the coil or stop oscillations.

 

Putting an 8 mm aluminium tube in the coil reduced the power to 3.6 watt and therefore took 0.9 watt

 

Putting a 19 mm aluminium tube in the 25 mm coil reduced the power to an unreadable level and therefore took about 4.4 watt.

I measured the power with the dummy load connected, it has risen to 6 watt.

Result:

The value of the power was found.

Conclusion

The presence of a conductor inside a coil takes power.

New Transistor Oscillator 19-11-2008

Object

To design and make a more powerful oscillator.

Method

I found the valve only yielded 6 watt power so I'm designing a 200 watt transistor oscillator of the same frequency of 2 MHz.

The new oscillator has a coil of the same dimensions as before but I have put it further away from the chassis. Since the oscillator is a transistor oscillator the extra winding to match 50 ohm has more turns. Z1/Z2=N1^2/N2^2 so 50/1=N1^2/1.5^2 so N1=SQR (50X2.25) = 10.

I made an error and there are only 9 turns on this winding.

Underside

Over View
The meter scale is 0 to 10 Amp.


I'm using two power transistors of 100 watt each it should yield 200 watt.

Calculation of e-field inside coil:

If my method is correct Poynting's vector inside the coil will be 200/4.9E-4=407000 watt /m^2 so the E-field will be given by:

<S>= (e0c/2)E^2 = 132.7x E^2 so E=SQR(407000/132.7)=55.38 volts/meter.

Calculation of collision energy from mean free path x field strength

So for collision energy near windings,

40=m f p x 55.38 so m f p = 72 cm. That corresponds to a pressure of 10^-5 Tor.

I should be able to ionise the hydrogen in this tube.
 

More calculations

Near the axis the field will be 13800 volts/meter so the collision energy will be m f p x 13800 = 1 x 13800 or 13.8 KeV
This corresponds to a temperature of 2.2E11 K or 1100 times hotter than the sun's core. Hot enough for proton fusion.

I have a problem with biasing by circuit at present but the new bias resistors should arrive on Friday. The hydrogen tubes will not be delivered until after thanksgiving.

The oscillator only takes 2 amp and the power meter reads 10 Watt without the load but zero when I plug in the 50 ohm dummy load.

20-11-2008 14:00 GMT

I think I need a smaller number of turns in the output winding to match the 50 ohm better.

20-11-2008 14:10 GMT

I reduced the number of turns on the output winding to two turns and found the power without load went down to 0.25 watt but with the load the power was 1.5 watt.

This will tell me if the hydrogen tube increases or reduces the power.

Working Oscillator

This oscillator is not powerful enough to light the fluorescent tube so I won't be using it for my experiments.

Experiment 22-11-2008 13:00 GMT

 

Putting tubes of low pressure hydrogen tubes in the 4 watt oscillator coil did not result in the visible ionisation of the hydrogen.
 
I tried 10^-5 Tor, 10^-6 Tor, 10^-7 Tor and 10^-8 Tor.
 
It was not visibly glowing in the light of day, I will try again in darkness tonight after sun down as I do not have a blackout.
 
I do expect the glow to be very faint.
 
I was using a Hartley oscillator based on a RCA 812A triode with an anode potential of 500 volts.
 
The power to a 50 ohm load was 4 watts and the power only changed slightly when I put the hydrogen tube in the coil.
 
The transistor oscillator also showed a slight change in power when the hydrogen tube was put in the coil.

22-11-2008 16:50

It is now dark and I put the 10^-8 tube in the coil of the transistor oscillator and turned off the lights after a minute or two I noticed a glowing line in the middle of the tube, this suddenly got brighter and there was a slight flash then the line went out. The oscillator still works and a later experiment failed to reproduce this result.

Later I put the same tube in the valve oscillator and nothing happened except the the tube got quite hot and the oscillator stopped oscillating. Normally, without the tube the coil runs cold and the oscillator does not stop oscillating. Now the oscillator does not work and I will have to find what went wrong. The capacitor has probably failed. I noticed the anode current had dropped to half it usual value from 75 mA to 50 mA. The capacitor had failed as it is being used over its rating for alternating current.

I replaced the capacitor and repeated the experiment at a lower plate potential.

The output power slowly fell until I switched it off. The tube did not noticeably warm.

 

22-11-2008 22:00

I increased the potential of the power supply from 12 volts to 30 volts and the output power has increased to 8 watt. The average current is still only about 1.2 Amp so the power dissipated by the transistors is therefore 36 watt. That is 22 % efficient. The transistors are slightly warm and the current is not increasing. (This is my duff oscillator).

When I put the fluorescent tube in the oscillations stopped and the current increased to 3 amps limited by the current limit.

Now with the transistor oscillator running at 8 watts the tube gets hot. When I took it out the oscillations stopped and the current increased to 3 amps when the current limit stopped it.

It is quite stable at 8 watt.

Putting a metal tube near the oscillator coil also stops oscillations and causes the current to rise to the 3 amp limit.

So it looks like the gas in the hydrogen tube did conduct but caused the oscillations to stop. I suppose the oscillator cannot cope with the extra load.

Looks like ionised gas is a short circuit. And it looks like I need a valve circuit to cope with the gas conductor. I suppose it is my duff circuit. Ill try a transistor Hartley transistor oscillator next time!

23-11-2008 12:30

 

Now the transistor oscillator can light a fluorescent tube.

16 watt transistor oscillator lighting fluorescent tube.

The current increased from 1 amp to two amps when I put in the tube.

25-11-2008 The reason the oscillator failed

I found that the oscillator failed because the 680 pF tuning capacitor had failed because the RF potential across it had exceeded its rating. I am going to replace it with 4 3300 pF capacitors to raise the operating potential to 2800 volt AC and to increase the capacitance to 825 which will also bring the frequency down to 1.9 MHz.

26-11-2008 PSU construction

I am building a 50 volt power supply to increase the power to 36 watt. I'm using a variable transformer to feed a mains isolation transformer that has an output of 50 volt 10 Amp.

50 Volt PSU Under construction

50 Volt PSU laid out on wooden fibre building board. The object on the left is a variable transformer, the mains transformer is in the middle, the smoothing capacitor is to the right and the switch and connection box is on the right.

The medicine bottle on the shelf is clove oil for a bad tooth.

26-11-2008 Partly Built 0-50 Volt 10 amp PSU

Partly Built PSU. The voltmeter is on the left.

27-11-2008 12:22

I finished the new PSU and replaced the capacitor in the oscillator.

I connected the PSU to the oscillator and turned on. I took the potential of the power supply up to 50 volt. The power increased to 16 watt.

I repeated with the 10^-8 Tor hydrogen tube in place but could see no ionisation but the tube got warm. I did the same for the 10^-5 Tor hydrogen tube and no glow could be seen and the tube did not get warm, similarly for the 10^-7 Tor hydrogen tube that did get warm.

Completed Oscillator and 0-50 PSU

 

27-11-2008 8:56 pm

I put the tubes one by one in the coil and took the power up to ten watt. The tubes did not glow so no ionisation took place.

I then repeated the microwave experiment with these tubes. I put the 10^-8 Tor tube in first and that did not ionise. I then put the 10^-5 Tor tube in and that did not ionise. I then put my 3 Tor tube in the 850 watt microwave oven and that did not ionise. I have two 3 Tor tubes and the other one had a spot of glue on it, I recall that the 10^-3 Tor tube I had success with also had a spot of glue on it, so I put that one in the oven and it ionised after about 6 seconds. It got very hot.

I then put a spot of glue on the 10^-5 Tor tube and put it in the oven and that did not ionise. There is another difference the new tubes are 100 mm long, the old tubes are 40 mm long, both are 25 mm is diameter.

The tube with the glue spot did not ionise in the coil.

I do not know what the spot of glue does.

28-11-2008 6:55 pm

The spot of glue turned out to be a red herring. The mechanism of ionisation involves the microwave energy heating the gas first and then it ionises in the electric field.

I found the 3 Tor tubes ionised in 40 seconds in the oven but the 10^-5 Tor tube did not ionise after 90 seconds in the oven, nor did the 10^-6 Tor or the 10^-8 Tor tube.

It seems the best pressure is 3 Tor.

28-11-2008 9:39 pm

I put the 3 Tor tube in the coil and left the oscillator running for three hours but the hydrogen did not ionise and the tube got hot.

Photo Taken 29-11-2008 10:30 pm

1-12-2008 : 6:00 am

Change to commercial equipment

I have ordered a 100 watt amateur radio transmitter to excite the tube.

1-12-2008 : 1:00 pm

Experiment to build a test cell

Object:

To build a test circuit to take the power from a commercial transmitter to ionise the hydrogen and to see if I can extract power.

Method

Proposed set up:

 

Test Cell

This is the proposed set up. There will also be a power meter/VSWR meter and an antenna tuner between the transmitter and the test cell unit. That way I will be able to tell if there is a gain or loss of power through the test cell. I have several samples of hydrogen at different pressures to try.

3-12-2008 Test Cell

Test Cell windings

4-12-2008 Put RF cage around coil

Test Cell with RF cage screen

8-12-2008: 6:15 pm

Conclusion

The Test Cell was completed

Object

To ionise hydrogen with RF

Method

I have now finished the test cell and hooked up the transmitter.

I set the transmitter on 100 watt and passed the signal through a power meter, the test cell and then another power meter finishing with a dummy load.

I was able to get the transmitter up to 30 watt as its power is limited by the VSWR. This was about 3. The power was transmitted through the cell and 5 watts appeared at the other end. That means 25 watts was lost in the cell.

It tuned to a frequency of 1.973 MHz without the fluorescent tube and a different frequency with the tube. The hydrogen tube did not alter the frequency.

There was sufficient power to light the fluorescent tube but the tube with a pressure of 3 Tor hydrogen failed to respond it did not even get warm.

Fluorescent tube in test cell lit by transmitter.

Conclusion:

I do not have sufficient power to ionise hydrogen.

8-12-2008 10:30 pm

I have improved the matching of the transmitter into the tuned circuit. I now get 70 watts into the test cell and 20 watts out meaning that 50 watts is being absorbed by the test cell.
 
The hydrogen tube is getting hot to touch after a few minutes of sustained power. The VSWR is about 1.5 now. The frequency has changed to 1.99 MHz.

8-12-2008 11:37 pm

I now have an even better match with the VSWR initially at 1.2 but rising to 1.7 as the thing got hot. I can now put 100 watt into the cell and 70 watt comes out meaning that 30 watt is lost in the device.

The hydrogen tube gets hot but does not ionise.

I do not have enough power at 100 watt.

12-12-2008 12:15 pm

Object

Experiment to ionise hydrogen with high voltage and to see if RF current in a coil around it affected the ionised gas.

Method

I succeeded in putting a tube of low pressure hydrogen with electrodes connected to a high tension source into a coil carrying radio frequency current.

When the oscillator was off the plasma was there but when the oscillator was on running 10 watts the plasma was brighter.

Experimental set up:

The yellow object on the left is the high voltage source. Centre is the oscillator and tube and the power meter and dummy load (not visible) is on the right.

Oscillator off

 

Oscillator on

Oscillator Off

Oscillator On

Conclusion:

The ionised gas was affected by the RF current in the coil.

Object

Experiment to see if hydrogen could be ionised with a commercial radio transmitter.

Method

14-12-2008 Test Cell frequency changed to 3.674 MHz

Test Cell re-wound for 3.67 MHz.

The coil now has 15 turns and the matching windings are 6 turns on the input and four on the output to the power meter and dummy load. The VSWR is 1.1 until it heats up in which case the resonant frequency increases and the frequency of the transmitter has to be raised to match to keep the VSWR down below 1.5. After these changes the resonant frequency changed to 3.74 MHz and during operation the device, including the hydrogen tube became warm to touch and the smell of hot plastic insulation was apparent.  I tied up the six turn matching winding with cable ties to make it neater.

Test cell showing hydrogen tube inserted.

16-12-2008 12:26 pm

Added Spark Gap to make prototype reactor to limit the power should it develop any.

Coil showing spark gap at rear.

Underside of test cell

18-12-2008 12:13 am

Fluorescent tube lit in test cell

22-12-2008 9:45 am

Result:

The commercial unit did not ionise the hydrogen

Conclusion

There is still insufficient power to ionise hydrogen.

Object

To ionise hydrogen

 

Method

The new tubes arrived today. I put a tube containing hydrogen at 1 Tor in the coil and excited it with 100 watt. The tube did not ionise but slowly increased in temperature, The VSWR increased this was brought down to 1 by increasing the frequency. The resonant frequency increased as the test progressed from 3.76 MHz to 3.92 MHz at the end of the test and the power absorbed by the test cell increased from 30 watt to 60 watt.

I took out the tube and the absorption of the cell decreased to 30 watt. I surmise that the hot tube absorbed 30 watt.

After 5 minutes the test was terminated and turned the transmitter off.

Result:

The test cell is unstable and the hydrogen did not ionise

Conclusion

I need to think again about the construction of the test cell

30-12-2008 9:37 pm

I built the load to switch into the output circuit to shut down the reactor. It is a 600 watt 1 ohm resistor.

31-12-2008 9:14 pm.

Experiment with linear amplifier

Today I purchased a second hand 400 watt linear amplifier for 80 meters. I need to buy two special leads for it as the sockets are non standard.

The lab set up now is like this:

Lab set up, linear not connected through lack of leads.

1-1-2009 5 pm

Today I made up two leads and tried the linear. I obtained 300 watt from the linear and the tube got hot but the fuse in the mains plug of the linear blew and the capacitor in the test cell failed. The power rose to 900 watt, the transmitted power to 1000 watt and the VSWR rose to infinity. The capacitance fell so the resonant frequency increased and when I ran the linear again the test cell took power but it was not the tube that heated but the capacitor as it had become resistive. The VSWR rose to infinity and the power increased to 900 watt then the fuse in the mains plug to the linear blew. The linear blew up with the four resistors in the power output stage burning out. The power out to the dummy load also rose to about 1000 watt. The transmitter is supposed to deliver 400 watt does that mean I had 600 watt fusion power.

I will now have to make a 840pF capacitor as the high power capacitor required is difficult to come by.

02-01-2008

I think I will give the project a rest.

03-01-2009 10:10 pm

Result

I found that only one of the capacitors in the chain had swollen up so I replaced it and the cell worked again. Its resonant frequency was about 3.65 MHz. The linear amplifier cannot be used because the capacitor would fail again.

I did an experiment:

Object

To see if the presence of hydrogen inside the coil changed the power of the oscillator.

Method

I measured the power out without the hydrogen tube: 50 watt. I put the hydrogen tube in 52 Watt. The VSWR was the same, too low to measure. The hydrogen tube used had the gas at a pressure of 2 Tor. The input power was about 95 watt.

Result

There was a slight increase of power with the hydrogen tube inside the coil.

Conclusion

Does that mean 2 watts of fusion power?

04-01-2009 9:25

Repeat Experiment above

Method

I tried the experiment again this morning and found no difference at all between the power out with the hydrogen tube in or out.

Result:

The power is unaffected by the presence of hydrogen

However the VSWR rose to 3 during the experiment so the capacitors had failed again.

Conclusion

I will have to reconstruct the test cell with a more stable capacitor

04-01-2009 9:57

I repeated the experiment and the VSWR had fallen back to 1:1 but the power did not change with the addition of the hydrogen tube.

13-01-2009 12:30 pm

New Capacitor

I decided to use a tune and load capacitor pair from Waters and Stanton (1000 pF Air vane variable)

I now have the capacitor I ordered.

 

It is quite big.

 

 

I expected it to be quite big but not as big as this. It wont go inside the test cell so I will have to have trailing leads connections. I will need to put some sockets in and have flying leads terminated by a plug at one end. I will also need two knobs for the two spindles although I will only use one.

 

The original capacitor is on the left of the picture.

 

Ive just turned down the offer of a 500 watt transistor linear for 300 as it is not powerful enough and the vendor could not say that it worked because he had not tried it.

13-01-2009 9:05 pm

Experiment with new capacitor

Object

To try the new capacitor

Method

I connected the capacitor to the ends of the coil and swapped the coil so it tuned to 3.87MHz when it was half way round.

I obtained a VSWR of 2 with 1 watt of reflected power 43 watt of transmitted power with 70 watt input. The transmitter would not reach 100 watt because the VSWR was 2. I could not reduce this by changing the transmitter frequency or by altering the position of the vane. This remained steady for the fifteen minutes that I ran the test. I did not touch the tube after the test to see if it was warm to touch.

Here is the set up:

The new capacitor is on the right and the flying leads are visible at the back.
 

I adjusted the vane with pliers as the knob has not arrived. It should come tomorrow.

13-01-2009 11:59 pm

Experiment with antenna tuner

Object

To see how an antenna tuner affects the system

Method

I put my antenna tuner unit (ATU) between the cell and the transmitter. This improved the VSWR to less that 1.1 and I was able to run 100 watt into the cell for 10 minutes. The tube of low pressure (2 Tor) hydrogen got quite hot to touch but not enough to burn I suppose it was about 60C. The wires did not get hot but they were slightly warm to touch.

The ATU is above the transmitter.

Result

It was possible to adjust the ATU to get a 1:1 VSWR

Conclusion

I will use the ATU.

14-1-2009 5:30 PM

Today the vendor of the second hand 400 watt linear that failed came and offered to repair it for an additional fee.

15-01-2009 7:25 pm

I completed the fixing of the capacitor to the chassis with metal strip and measured the VSWR again. I obtained less than 1.1 with the ATU but without the VSWR I could only get it down to 2.

I noticed that the inductor of the LC tuned circuit got quite warm with 100 watt so I'm wondering if the wire of the coil is thick enough. Perhaps I should make another one with copper tube as the conductor of the coil.

The present arrangement will be ok up to 400 watt but not at 1000 watt as it might get red hot or melt.

Test Reactor with capacitor attached to chassis.

16-01-2009 12 noon

Experiment with a 400 watt Linear Amplifier

Object:

To see if the higher power will ionise the hydrogen

Method

I borrowed a 400 watt linear from a friend and under his supervision used his equipment to excite the reactor. I selected the tube filled with hydrogen at 2 Tor.

The hydrogen ionised at 290 watt with a discharge that filled the tube.

290 Watt Discharge

The power was increased to 550 watt and the discharge glow moved away from the walls of the tube in the centre and formed a bright region round the axis of the coil.

550 Watt Discharge

Result

As you can see the discharge has moved away from the walls in the mid point region of the coil.

This plasma column was perfectly stable.

No excess power was detected with 550 watt going in and 320 watt emerging into the dummy load. So 230 watt was lost in the reactor.

The linear cannot safely deliver more power so the experiment ended there.

Another view of the 550 watt discharge

This shows the power in as 550 watt.

Plate and Grid current showing on linear amplifier.

Conclusion

These results are consistent with my theory based on the unlike current repulsion method of containment. This shows the advantage of  AC containment in a coil. A toroid would be better as it has no end.

17-1-2009 2:12 pm

Experiment to see the effect of removing the dummy load

Method

I modified the circuit by replacing the two 4/5 turned coupling coils by two 2 turned coils in series without the extra output dummy load connected. This means all the power from the transmitter goes to the coil. Previously the output load took half the power.

I can now ionise the hydrogen with 100 watt.

Modified circuit

Hydrogen discharge with 100 watt

Ionised hydrogen in coil at 100 watt.

Result

In this picture you can see how it pulls away from the wall near the mid point of the coil. When using a higher power than 100 watt the effect will be greater and the plasma will be insulated from the wall by a vacuum. This will mean that the heating effect inside the plasma is contained there enabling high temperatures to be reached. Notice also that although the hydrogen gas discharge is blue the central column is white indicating a high temperature and higher density gas there.

Conclusion

A coil carrying alternating current may be used for containment

18-01-2009 10 am

Object

To try different pressures

I tried two other pressures with this result:

Result

1 Tor struck at 100 watt but the glow was dimmer.

3 Tor did not strike at 100 watt

2 Tor struck after about 20 seconds at 100 watt.

U-Tube Video: http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=-Ga7wNScqrM

The current indicator read 1.4 with the tube but 1.9 without.

I found that I could switch out the ATU and get a match of 1:1 by tuning but when the device heated up I could not and the transmitter cut back on its power and the bright region of the plasma near the axis of the coil faded.

When I run 100 watt in I get 5 Watt out. This cannot be removed by tuning the capacitor. So is this power generated by the plasma?

Conclusion

It is possible that power is being generated within the plasma.

22-01-2009 9:28 pm

Experiments with Test Cell

I set the power of the transmitter to high pressed the send button. The hydrogen ionised immediately. The S-meter that indicates the coil current read 0.6 after about a minute the reading rose to 1.2. During this time the reverse power stayed at 4 watt but the forward power dropped from 100 watt to 90 watt.

Before Power Applied

At Start of test, meter reading is 0.6

Power meter at start of test
Forward Power 105 watt reverse power 4 watt ratio 0.038

After 1 minute, meter reading is 1.2

Power meter reading at end of test.
Forward Power 100 watt reverse power 4.5 watt ratio 0.045

When the plasma warmed up the current in the tank circuit doubled indicating that the plasma was producing power. The ratio reverse power/forward power increased from 0.038 to 0.045 so there was a small increase in relative reflected power. If we assume that the power produced by the plasma was zero initially the normalised reverse power was 3.8 watt, after warming up the normalised reverse power was 4.5 watt so the power created by the plasma was 0.7 watt. The normalised power is the power recalculated for a forward power of 100 watt.

23-01-2009 12:15 pm

I tried the experiment again today but this time I used an ATU to keep the VSWR to a minimum. I adjusted the ATU at low power to bring the reflected power down to zero then increased power to 100 W. As before the glow had a bright region near the axis of the coil and the S-meter read 0.6. As the thing heated up the the reflected power rose to I adjusted the ATU to bring this back to zero. After about a minute the appearance of the plasma changed as the bright area vanished and the whole glowing region was the same apart from a halo at the ends. The glow kept away from the windings as before. The S-meter rose a bit to about 0.8.

At end of test.

I do not understand it really. The S-meter only increases a little. I thought the ATU matched an antenna that was either capacitive or inductive. So if the tuned circuit was slightly out of tune with the transmitter the ATU makes it correct by adding capacitance or inductance. That means the presence of ionised gas will not alter the centre frequency but if the circuit is out of adjustment then things would be changed when the ionisation occurred. That would indicate that the ATU altered things so the S-meter did not go up so much when the tuning changed.

23-1-2009 7:05pm

I measured the reading of the S-meter for the tube out and for the tube in against the transmitter power.
Power (watt) S-meter no tube S-meter with tube Difference  
1 0 0 0  
10 0.05 0 -0.05  
20 0.06 0 -0.06  
30 0.1 0.1 0  
40 0.3 0.3 0  
50 0.5 0.5 0  
60 0.6 0.5 -0.1 Tube Strikes
70 1.0 0.7 -0.3  
80 1.2 0.9 -0.3  
90 1.5 1.1 -0.4  
100 1.7 1.4 -0.3  

Plot of S-meter reading against power applied

Notice the dip when the hydrogen ionised. The s-meter reading is lower when the hydrogen tube is inserted and ionised than without indicating that the ionised gas is acting like a series resistor and taking power from the load.

I have noticed that the blue discharge has now changed colour to red.

24-01-2009 10:50 pm

I found that the tube with hydrogen at 2 Tor seems to have worn and the S-meter did not rise to 1.2 from 0.5 after heating up The reverse power stays at about 2 watt instead of rising to 5 watt.. It lights immediately the current is applied and has a reddish discharge instead of a bluish discharge. When I put the tube containing hydrogen at 1 Tor the tube took 20 seconds or so at 100 watt to strike and had a bluish discharge as the tube heated up the discharge lost its bright line down a wavy path near the axis and became an even blue-red appearance that filled an area about 1 cm in diameter round the axis of the coil.

26-01-2009 4:30 pm

When I tried the tube with hydrogen at 2 Tor pressure inside again yesterday evening I noticed that the deflection on the S-meter had risen to 1.2 again and the discharge had changed back to blue with the bright column near the axis.

This might indicate that something was replenished by diffusion overnight.

This could mean that deuterium in the hydrogen had got used up and was replenished by diffusion overnight from other regions of the gas in the tube.

26-01-2009 5:27 pm

I tried it again the with the tube out and tuned to a match (the S-meter read 0.6) and then I put the tube in, at first the tube did not strike and the S-meter went up to was 0.6.

I repeated this, the reverse power was zero without the tube but with the tube in the reverse power was 10 watt the S-meter read 0.6. The forward power rose from 90 watt to 110 watt and the reverse power stayed at 10 watt. Taking to tube out the reverse power fell to 0 and the forward power stayed at 110 watt. The S-meter stayed at 0.6.

I put the tube in again the reverse power was 6 watt and the S-meter 1.4, the bright bar appeared again.

The forward power stayed at 110 watt.

26-01-2009 6:14

I repeated the trial and readjusted the capacitor to a perfect match with the tube in. The blue bar was present and the S-meter read 1.4. The reverse power was zero.

6:35 pm

Now the S-meter reads 1.6 without the tube and 1.4 with the tube in. The reverse power was zero in both cases.

This indicates that the tube is loading the tuned circuit.

After running the the device for about a minute the tube heated up and the ionised gas changed its appearance as previously described the reverse power rose and the forward power fell the S-meter reading fell to 1.2. I adjusted the capacitor to minimum reverse power and I found I could not bring it down to zero as there was a residual reverse power of 2 watt at the best match.

That 2 watt may be due to the hot gas undergoing fusion at a low rate. The forward power was 100 watt.

27-1-2009 11:10 am

I found the cold tube in this morning and tuned up without the the tube to a perfect match. I put the tube in and it did not strike. The S-meter read 0.6 and the reverse power was zero. After a few seconds the tube struck the S-meter remained 0.6 but the reverse power rose to 2 watt. I did not readjust the tuning to set the reverse power to zero.

11:16 am

I allowed the circuit to cool and powered up. I did not retune. The tube struck immediately the S-meter stayed at 0.6 and the reverse power read zero. The forward power was 105 watt.

I allowed the circuit to warm up and the reverse power slowly increased and the S-meter stayed at 0.6. I retuned to minimum reverse power, after a while I noticed that the minimum reverse power had risen to about 1 watt. The S-meter stayed at 0.6.

1-2-2009 8:12 am

I think I am getting about 2 watts (continuous) of fusion power out for 100 watts in to maintain the temperature and ionise the gas. I think so because if I tune the capacitor for a perfect match and power up the reverse power starts to rise to 2 Watt after a delay as the tube gets hot. This cannot be removed by adjusting the capacitor.

 

This rise does not occur when the tube is not in place although the apparatus gets hot.

 

I have the problem that as the power out rises the transmitter backs off and cuts back its output power thus cooling the gas down, this prevents further build up.

4-2-2009 8:55 pm

I started the transmitter up again this evening and the tube struck as usual but the S meter read 1.1 and the reverse power was zero. After a few seconds the S-meter reading suddenly dropped to 0.6. Then the reverse power rose a little then suddenly rose to 3 watt. I retuned to the minimum reverse power and this then fell to 2 watt and stayed there until I turned the transmitter off.

5-2-2009 11:40 am

I plugged in the power meter and ammeter to see what current the transmitter took. I got 0.107 Amp with the power supply only, 0.216 Amp with the transmitter on,  0.792 Amp with the the transmitter on low power, 2.511 Amp on high power and when the reverse power rose to 2 watt the current taken from the mains was 2.553 A, this then diminished to 2.481 A then 2.515 A.

14-2-2009 10:30 pm

I measured the reverse power as a function of forward power after the reverse power has risen and was a minimum and here are the results.

Forward Power (Watt) Reverse Power (Watt)
30 0.6
50 1.4
80 2.0
100 4.0

Graph:

This appears to show the normal curve for reflected power. This would mean that the reverse power is proportional to the forward power. There is evidence here for a build up toward the 100 watt mark.

I put an extra plot of Forward power x 0.02 V Forward Power to make a comparison. It does seem to increase above the linear plot.

15-02-2009 12:21 am

I tried my reactor today and I could get no balance at low power. So I took
the coil out and found a film of discolouration on the bare copper where the
coil plugged into the sockets.

When I cleaned this of the thing worked again.

I attached the correct plugs to the bare wire with silver solder and the
balance was restored.

As the temperature built up the reverse power went up but I found I could
bring it back to zero by adjusting the trimmer on the capacitor.

I noticed that as the reverse power went up the plasma changed its
appearance and when I restored the reverse power back to zero the plasma
went back to the original appearance.


The reverse power started to rise again and the plasma went back to its hot
appearance.

I think that when I re-tuned it the plasma cooled and did not emit power and
when it heated up again the power came back.

I will now check that by repeating without the tube after the apparatus has
cooled down.

I tried the same thing with the tube out and the reverse power rose above
zero but not as much as with the tube in place and when I retuned to take
the reverse power back to zero it did not rise again.

That means the increase in reverse power is more with the tube.

 

After turning the exciter off I left the setting on the capacitor as they were when the coil was hot and it was still hot and put the tube in.
 
I turned on the power on low and the reverse power was zero. I put the power up to high and after a few seconds the reverse power began to rise as the gas got hot, this must be because of the tube. I did not readjust the capacitor and the reverse power slowly rose to 6 watts reverse power. It stopped rising at that point.
 
So 6 watts of reverse power is due to the tube. I put this down to fusion.
 
If I had an exciter that did not get hot then I think the reverse power would have risen higher.

18-02-2009 1:30 pm

I noticed today that my face and hands are quite suntanned and I have watering eyes. This may be due to radiation from the prototype reactor.

I have now put it on the shelf awaiting a rebuild with feed through links and thicker conductors. I have put the purchase of a powerful linear amplifier on hold. I will probably cancel my credit agreement and send back my credit card when it arrives as debt is poison, it does not boost the economy it wrecks it.

23-02-2009 10:30 pm

Experiment with Pyrex torus

This afternoon the Pyrex torus filled with hydrogen at 2 Torr reached me and this evening I wound a 9 turn coil round it. This will resonate at 14.3 MHz when tuned by a 600 pF capacitor. I will soon order a variable capacitor like the one I used for the linear version.

Torus with coil for reactor


24-02-2009 9:15 am

The RF current meter arrived this morning but it is no good as it does not register any current and stops the oscillations.
 

24-02-2009 1:55 pm

I reconnected the S-meter with an inductive loop so it gave a bigger deflection for the RF current. With 100 watt exciter I found the S-meter reading dropped from 2.6 to 2.4 as the reverse power increased from 0 to 2 watt.

This would indicate that the reverse power is due to a change in the dynamic impedance of the tuned circuit. If the dynamic impedance had increased then you would expect the current circulating in the tuned circuit to decrease for the same exciting RF potential. I=E/R. This reduction of current may be caused by a back EMF due to fusion power in the gas transferred by induction to the circuit. I initially thought that power generated by the gas would increase the current.

24-10-2009 2:23 pm

I repeated the last experiment but adjusted the capacitor to keep the reverse power at zero.
 
After the circuit warmed up the readings of both the S-meter and the reverse power meter remained constant at 2.5 and zero respectively.
 
I conclude, therefore, that there is no power generated by fusion in the ionised gas.  
 
The change in the meters readings is entirely due to the change of dimensions of the electrical circuit as the metal warms up.
 
However I think the theory is correct but the present set up does not have enough power to heat the ionised gas hot enough to start fusion reactions at a significant rate.

25-02-2009 8:50 am

I changed the conductors to a thicker wire and the current in the LC circuit has doubled. The S-meter initially read 2.5, now it reads 4.5.

This time the Pyrex discoloured and it looks like the tube got very hot. However fusion did not occur.

I examined the tube and found that the discolouration was due to a deposit from the enamel coating on the coil. The enamel on the coil was discoloured too.

25-02-2009 11:00 am

I found the sockets were getting hot and one caught fire. The tube was in place and the S-meter reading had changed from 3 to over scale at over 5 and the potential across the tuned circuit was 2500 volts. The reverse power I was able to adjust to zero with the capacitor. I then removed the sockets and connected the wires from the capacitor directly on to the coil ends and suspended the coil with these wires.

The S-meter now reads 3. This reading in no way connected to previous readings as the geometry has changed. The wire carrying the current is now further away from the inductive loop connected to the micro ammeter with a series diode.

I noticed that after the tube struck the reverse power could be brought down to zero by retuning the capacitor. When the temperature rose the glow in the tube dimmed and the reverse power increased. When I re-tuned to bring the reverse power down to zero again the tube brightened again. I had to repeat this several times until it stabilised. I noticed the S-meter reading also went down as the reverse power went up and up again when the adjustment to the capacitor brought the reverse power back to zero. I noticed that the bright tube had a brighter central column and a more diffuse region around it. The reverse power went to zero and then increased a bit after adjusting for minimum reverse power.

The coil got very hot and the enamel is burning off in mid part of the coil. I will have to change the coil to silver plated copper.

I took the tube out and found I could not reduce the reverse power to zero. With a forward power of 100 W the reverse power hovered around 5 watt and the S-meter stayed on 2.5. The coil did not get so hot.

27-02-2009 12:24 am

I rewired the unit with 2 mm wire and turned the sockets upside down so I could solder the wires on a fix the coils down.

I was able to get a 1:1 match when the tube was hot and the unit stayed at 1:1 throughout the test with only minor adjustments to the capacitor.

The plasma had a bright portion round the axis and near the mid section of the coil with a diffuse region round the outside. This indicated that the ionised gas is being held near the axis with gas coming out at the ends along the axis.

General View

 

Note bright region near the middle where it is hottest.

Not enough power for fusion yet.

27-02-2009 7:53 am

I put the spark gap limiter back.

I found I could get a balance with the tube lit but as it heated up the inductance increased. It was sitting there with a match of 1:1 when the glow suddenly went out. The match changed and the VSWR increased.

I found the tuning was way out when I took the tube out. I retuned but I could not get a match and the tube would not light when I put it in.

I also noticed that with the tube out the coil got very hot and started to smoke.

I took out the spark gap limiter and the overheating vanished, the good match came back. I found a better match could be obtained by moving the second coupling coil away from the resonator coil.

I conclude, therefore, that the spark gap limiter was acting as a small capacitor causing VHF parasitic oscillations with the power drawn from the transistor.

I found the sudden cessation of oscillation and bad mismatch still occurs when the circuit gets hot this is a new phenomena. It may be due to insulation breakdown of the upside down sockets that are used to mount the circuit components. There is a smell of hot plastic.

My circuit will have to be re-built using higher rated components.

The wire of the coil is getting so it looks like it is a case of the insulators overheating and thus carbonising and conducting.

27-02-2009 22:12.

I have rebuilt the prototype reactor with big nylon insulators supporting the coil and 2 mm wire and some big bolts holding the parts together.

Here are photos of the new construction

 

 

 

This new construction showed no change in VSWR once it had warmed up. The wire did not get as hot as it did before.

1-03-2009 10:50

I have replaced the sockets that caught fire with large plastic insulators and mounted the coil on a strong screw mount. The circuit has been re-wired with 2 mm enamelled copper wire and no part of the wiring goes under the base board. The coupling loop wiring now has 2 mm plugs as well as sockets and still goes under the baseboard to connect to the coaxial lead to the transmitter.

I discovered the turns on the winding were too close together and adjacent turns were arcing through the enamel insulation that had overheated and darkened so I separated them by pulling on the turn.

The S-meter now reads 3.8 during operation when the transmitter is delivering 100 watt.

The reverse power still creeps up as the unit gets hot but this can be brought down to zero by turning the capacitor adjustment.

When the tube is not present the reverse power cannot be brought down to zero but it can be when the tube is in place and the plasma arc has struck.

02-03-2009 10:115 pm

I raised the coil by turning it over so the wire it hung from now supports it higher up. I made two new coupling coils with two turns each with longer wires soldered to plugs. This yields more current in the oscillating LC circuit but not as much as when I hung the coil loosely from the wires. The S-meter only registers a very small deflection (<0.5) because the inductive loop is now further from the coil.

The coil is now raised 12 cm above the base.

3-03-2009 9:16 am

The replacement RF current meter arrived this morning. The current in the LC circuit was measured at about 15 amps which drops as the reverse power rises. However if the reverse power is reduced to zero to give a 1:1 match by adjusting the capacitor setting the current rises to its former value again. I did notice this current creeping up as the unit heated up with the reverse power maintained at zero.

I tried this experiment again and as the unit warmed up the reverse power fell to zero and the current was measured at 13 amp as the unit warmed the reverse power stayed at zero but the current rose to 16 amp. The forward power dropped as the unit heated up. Adjusting the reverse power at zero the forward power rose back to 100 watt but the current in the LC circuit fell to 9 amp at this point the unit began to smoke as the enamel volatilised. I noticed also during this time the glow changed in appearance several times. Sometimes it was a diffuse glow filling nearly the whole tube and at other times a glow with a bright region near the axis in the vicinity of the mid point of the coil.

04-03-2009 10:30 am

I purchased a new linear amplifier and it arrived today. I received instruction from the manufacturer and they told me to turn it on without the HT switched on and leave it on for a day to condition the valves or the emission would be low. I was also told that the amplifier had not been manufactured for 5 years but it was still a good amplifier.

I switched the power on without the ht supply on as instructed and with the exciter off.

After a about 1/2 an hour it began to smell then after another 10 minutes it caught fire. I switched it off. We had to leave the building in case of smoke inhalation while the lack of oxygen in the case put the fire out and I let it cool down.

When it was cold I disconnected it and put in back in its packing case and rang the vendor to request an immediate refund and for them to collect the amplifier.

I will not be buying another high power amplifier as they are too dangerous for domestic use.

I will now continue my low power investigations on the toroidal configuration.

06-03-2009 6:05 pm

I bought a hand spectrometer. The spectrum from a fluorescent tube shows definite lines but the spectrum from the glowing ionised gas in the tube with the room lights of at dusk showed a bright but continuous spectrum from violet to deep red with no lines seen at all. The RF current was 60 amp. Reverse power zero. Input power 105 watt.

I have ordered another hand spectrometer of a cardboard tubular design. This will enable me to fit it on a camera and photograph the spectrum and display it here.

07-03-2009 6:16 pm

I started the base mount for the wound Pyrex toroid this evening

Undrilled Base
 

07-03-2009 9:55 pm

I now have drilled the base and the toroid is temporarily in place.

Base drilled and wired up, Toroid mounted.

S-meter and sense coil added

I am now awaiting the return of the capacitor which I sent away to have a slow motion drive attached.

17-03-2009 7:05 pm

Experiment with spectroscope

Object

To see if any new elements such as helium had been created in the tube.

Method

I bought a tubular hand spectroscope and I received it today. I have just made a spectrograph of the ionised gas in the tube.

Here is the photographic set up I used to make the spectrographs. The tube mounted in front of the 50 mm lens is the hand spectrograph.

Set up with the room lights on. I turned the room lights off to take the spectrographs.

Spectrograph of gas in tube

Second spectrograph of ionised gas in tube

Spectrograph of hydrogen from Wikipedia

Spectrograph of room fluorescent tube for comparison.

The red line from Wikipedia is 0.02 cm wide but my line is 0.03 cm wide and so it is ten times wider. So the temperature comes to:

0.03-0.02/0.02=0.5= SQR (kT/mc^2) so T=0.25 * mc^2/k = 0.25*1/6E23*(3E8)^2/1.4E-23 = 2.5E15 K. This is unlikely to be the temperature as it is much too high.

Conclusion

The hydrogen is very hot

19-03-2009 10:15.

Experiment with 1 KW linear amplifier

Method

The linear amplifier that I damaged out of ignorance by leaving the packing inside with the power on has now been repaired and I received it this morning.

I took out the packing and vacuumed out the debris. It has now been switched on with the HT off for about 3/4 of an hour. It is quite stable but there is a faint "electrical" scent emanating from it.

I have now turned it off.

I will probably turn the HT on tomorrow and tune it up with a dummy load. I have not used the "tune and load" system before so I will try to obtain instruction first.

19-03-2009 9:38 pm.

I finally learned how to set up the linear amplifier that arrived this morning and used it to excite the reactor.
 
Setting this up took several hours as I was totally unfamiliar with the process.
 
I increased the power I applied to the ionised gas, aiming to reach 1000 watt. But at 300 watt the capacitor flashed over and the circuit stopped oscillating.
 
The RF current was 80 amp and the S-meter read 0.5.
 
So I backed off the power to 200 watt and allowed the gas to heat up.
 
However it stopped immediately I switched of the exciter showing that 200 watt is insufficient to ignite the reactor.


200 watt input

The appearance of the ionised gas shows a brighter "solid" region near the mid point of the coil around its axis.

20-03-2009 8:16 am

I misread the current meter dial the current was 80% of 30 amps or 24 amp. That makes the plasma current 400 amp. That is at 200 watt so at 1000 watt the plasma current would be SQR (1000/200) * 400 =900 amp.

20-03-2009 11:17

I finished connecting up the toroid after attaching the capacitor to the base.

Prototype Toroidal Tomahawk reactor complete.

 

 

I then set the exciter at 7.3 MHz (the design frequency), changed the Linear to 40 meters and applied a small amount (10 watt) to the apparatus and altered the capacitor until the reverse power fell to zero.

I then increased the power to 100 watt. And the RF current was 40% of 30 amp =12 amp. As the apparatus heated up the reverse power rose so I adjusted the capacitor to bring it back to zero. The RF current dropped to 6 amp but the exciter remained on 100 watt forward power and zero reverse power. The RF current then dropped to 4.5 Amp.

The hydrogen gas in the toroid did not ionise.

Domestic circumstances due to the approach of dinner enforced the termination of the experiment at 11: 28 am. The tube was warm to touch.

20-03-2009 12:06 pm

After a snack lunch I switched on the linear and increased the power. At 400 watt the and a current of 20 amp the capacitor flashed over. I then reduced the power to 200 watt. After a few minutes the soldered joint on the left hand side melted and the reverse power shot up as the RF current fell to zero.

I then noticed the enamel on the wire on the left hand lead was discoloured indicating a higher current was flowing here than in the coil. I then realised this was because the left hand wire is much longer than the right hand wire. I will now increase the length of the right hand wire. These wires connect the capacitor to the coil. If I recall my theory correctly there is a wave around the circuit like an organ pipe and I need to put the maximum at the coil.

20-03-2009 1:08 pm

I changed the length of the right hand side wire to be the same as the left hand side and turned the power on. At 100 watt the RF current was 24 amp. I then switched in the linear and increased the power to 200 watt. I noticed the glow of ionised hydrogen at the top of the Toroid where the current enters and leaves the coil.

Toroidal Tomahawk reactor showing ionised gas at the top.

Notice also the S-meter has increased it reading from just above zero to 1.0 showing a big increase in the current in the coil.

The care worker came with out lunch enforcing a break so I turned the power off.

21-03-2009 6:50 am

Further Linear Tomahawk tests

I made a divided coil to test the effect of this on the ionisation expecting to concentrate the glow between the two halves of the coil. Each half had 7 turns and a U shaped wire connected the two half coils.

At 100 W the hydrogen did not ionise:

Divided coil with 100 watt at 3.7 MHz exciter

At 200 Watt the hydrogen ionised but with two bright regions inside each half coil and a very faint region between the half coils.

Divided coil with ionisation at 200 watt 3.7 MHz exciter

Conclusion

This shows that the divided coils do not have the brightest region between the half coils. That would imply that the region between the half coils is cool compared to the region inside the coils. This may mean that Hemelholzt coils are not the best configuration.

21-03-2009 10:30

I thought I could avoid the capacitor flashing over by using a 6 KV capacitor but the one I have is only 200 pF. I was able to tune the linear Tomahawk reactor with this capacitor at 10.14 MHz but the circuit did not work properly at this frequency and the standing wave ratio went up to 3 and I was unable to bring it to less than two. So that could not be used.

The circuit has now been reconnected as it was originally with a 1000 pF capacitor tuning the inductor.

27-03-2009 2:45 pm

I got a slight RF burn to my head when I bent down to adjust the transmitter and felt a bit queasy for a while so I have put a wire mesh round the coil. I put a wet cloth on my head to cool down my brain and I soon felt better.

I found that I needed 300 watt to reach 21 amp in the tank circuit.

Appearance of plasma at 300 watt 21 amp

This represents a plasma current of 315 amp and thus a temperature of 5.6MK according to my calculation of collision energies.

Soon after the start of running the test the circuit overheated and the soldered joint on the left hand side melted, breaking the circuit.

I have ordered some 4 mm enamelled copper wire to be wound into a coil and connecting wire and I found some 1000 pF 10 KV vacuum variable capacitors on sale but even as surplus stock they are very expensive, around $600. So a capacitor upgrade will have to wait. I am also considering braising or spot welding the joints for extra durability and heat capacity.

30-03-2009 11:10 pm

Experiments with Infra Red Thermometer

Object

To measure the total power from the reactor

Method

I purchased an infrared thermometer today and when I ran the unit at 200 watt the temperature registered was 220 degree C.

A radiator gives of heat according to Stephan's law: J=5.6E-8T^4 so for the sensor of (2.5 E-3)^2x 3.14 m^2 the flux was 131 watt. so all round the power is 4/3 x 3.14 x 3E-2^3 x 131 /2.5E-3^2 x 3.14 = 2.479 KW.

Result:

This is 12 times the power in.

Conclusion

There is a serious error in this calculation as Stefan's law refers to the absolute temperature but I took the temperature above ambient. Also I took J as the power received by the sensor but the law says J is in watts per meter.

I do not know the correct calculation.

31-03-2009 10:05

The heat is coming from the winding and the loss is limiting the power it is yielding and prevents it starting up. Thicker windings and a higher voltage capacitor will fix that.

I measured the temperature of the ionised gas by looking down the end of the tube and I could see it was cold at 24 C. This implies that not much heat is lost out of the plasma itself but that the electromagnetic coupling is efficiently transferring the energy released to the oscillating current in the winding as predicted by theory.

1-4-2009

Blackened enamel of wire windings of coil.

Coil Showing Windings

1-04-2009 10:20 pm

I measured the current against the exciter power and the temperature against exciter power and plotted two graphs:

 
Power Watt Current Amp I*I Temperature C  
10 3 9 92  
20 5.4 29.16 87  
30 6.6 43.56 86  
40 8.7 75.69 104  
50 9.6 92.16 109  
60 10.5 110.25 126

Plasma strikes

70 11.7 136.89 122  
80 12 144 136  
90 12.6 158.76 155  
100 12.6 158.76 152  
150 15 225 193  
200 18 324 214  
250 18.6 345.96 -  

 

 

Current as a function of Exciter Power

Temperature as a function of Exciter Power

Temperature as a function of Current.

I^2 and Temperature as a function of Current

There is a break when the plasma strikes at 60 watt exciter power. 

02-04-2009 10:15 pm

I now have diarrhoea. Have I got radiation sickness from my reactor?

 

I had a problem with my eyes from UK light but that has cleared up now.

 

I did the heat experiment again. At a distance of 220 mm from the reactor the temperature registered was 214 C. According to Stefan's law of radiation that works in reverse the heat falling on it is given by 5.6E-8 (T1^4-T2^4) = 5.6E-8 (5.62491E10-0.737E10)=5.6E-8 x 4.8879E10 = 2737 watt /m^2 over an area of  0.0025^2 *3.14*2737 = 1.9625E-5 = 0.0537 watt. So over a sphere at radius 0.22 meter the total area is 4 pi R^2 (I think) = 0.6 m^2 so the total power is 0.6/1.9625 E-5 * 0.0537 = 1638 watt and this is the power out so the excess power is 1438 watt. Please correct me on the surface area of a sphere

03-04-2009 07:40 pm

I measured the surface temperature of my 2 KW electric convector heater case as 64 C and the element as 99 C.

04-04-2009 07:00

I increased the exciter power to 400 watt this morning and the ionised gas glow got shorter and thinner near the mid point and brightened. Then the soldered joint melted with the heat of the current. After 400 watt the capacitor flashed over. 
 
This higher power was made possible by a piece of metal that I put in to support another coil but had the effect of shunting some of the RF current as a second capacitor.

This metal has now been removed.

07-04-2009 8:35 pm

I repeated the heat experiment without the tube.

I assumed that all the heat put out by the coil passes through the surface of a sphere 22 cm in radius centred on the mid point of the coil.
 
If the area of the sphere is A m^2 and the total heat output is P watt then the power density at the surface of the sphere is P/A.
 
So if the area of the sensor is As then if the power it intercepts is Ps then the power density is Ps/As.
 
I then assume that P/A=Ps/As so P=(Ps/As)*A.
 
Since the power source is not spherical then there will be a variation of power in different directions. The end on power output much lower giving a display on the bolometer of 24 C. This was only slightly above ambient indicating the the ionised gas was not giving out heat.
 
This implies that the power generated in the gas was being picked up by the coil by inductive coupling as predicted.
 
I did the same test without the hydrogen tube and the reading at 22 cm was 109 C.
 
If we do the same calculation for this the heat output comes to:
 
0.6/0.19 * 5.6E-8 (382^4-295^4) *0.19=461 watt.
 
To compare the previous calculation with the tube in place gives:
0.6/0.19 * 5.6E-8 (487^4-295^4) * 0.19 = 1.6KW.
 
The difference is 1.17 KW. This is due to the energy given out by the fusion reactions in the hydrogen gas in the tube.

07-04-2009 8:52 pm

Since the power calculated power out with 200 watt in without the tube is 461 watt then this is 461/200 times too much=2.3 times too much. This is the geometry figure.
 
Now since the calculated power is 1.17 KW this too high by 2.3 times so the true value is 507 watt.
 
So the fusion power is 507 watt.

09-04-2009 8:55 am

The new coil arrived today. It is slightly bigger than the old one because it is made of thicker wire. I will have to bend the ends to fit the terminals and buy a heavy duty soldering iron to fix it on.

The new coil is on the bottom left of the picture. It is to replace the old coil in the apparatus.

I may have to support the Pyrex tube of hydrogen to ensure it fits down the axis of the coil. Two V cuts in two Teflon sheets, one at each end, should suffice. They will be attached to the terminal blocks.

09-04-2009 5:14 pm.

I completed attaching the new coil to the apparatus today.

I found I could not get a mach with the coupling coils so I tried 3 turns in two windings and then two turns in one winding using a bigger diameter coil, 7 cm in diameter.

I was able to obtain ionised gas with this set up as before.

This in the new coil. Notice the bigger deflection on the S-meter indicating a bigger current.

The S-meter reading increased during the test but the current meter near the capacitor reading went down. This indicates that the current maximum had shifted to the coil. I also noticed that the exciter driver power went down but the power reading of the RF going into the unit rose a little during the test. This may indicate power production in the coil was replacing the power from the transmitter.

I noticed also that I felt ill after the test and now have a slight headache. My vision seems slightly affected too.

I may have to suspend experiments on health grounds.

09-04-2009 9:50 pm

I have now replaced the all connecting wires in the tuned circuit with 4 mm wire. The weak point now is the terminal block which the wires are soldered to and the solder tags and their interconnections.

Tomahawk Reactor with connecting wire replaced by 4 mm enamelled copper wire.

Since the unit made me feel ill I will put a fence wire screen round it to shield me and others from any radio emissions.

09-04-2009 10:10 pm

I put the screen on and took the exciter power up to 200 watt. After a short time the RF current meter fell and the glue on the case broke. This is a manufacturing defect so I will send it back. The glue is unsuitable. After removing the badly designed clamp from the wire to release the meter I ran the test again. The S-meter read 5 at the exciter power of 200 watt. I then began to feel ill again in spite of the screen and my fingers tingled. My ears hurt a bit and my face felt warm. The slight headache started again. So I switched off.

Tomahawk Reactor With mesh screen.

10-04-2009 1:55

I took two S-meter readings both with 200 watts exciter power one before the tube struck and one afterwards.

The S-meter before the the tube struck: 2.8.

 

The S-meter after the tube struck: 2.5.

Comparison of these two photographs indicate that less current flowed in the coil after the tube struck than before.

I think that means no power is generated by the gas. However I did not feel ill this time and I could not feel the heat that I did before. It is possible I did not run the test as long as last time.

10-04-2009 6 pm

This may be due to the wire screen absorbing the power. I might use a tin or felt hat instead. I have a Ferrari Hat here so I have put that on.

The other thing I noticed is that since the coil is not getting so hot the conduction heating of the gas is limited so the gas does not heat up and so does not ionise. The initial ionisation occurs at a higher power because the conductor of the winding which is in contact with the glass tube is at a lower temperature for the same power. This indicates I need a separate heater attached to the glass to aid the initial ionisation.

I did notice that when I suspended the tube along the axis of the coil with plastic insulators it did not ionise even at 200 watt.

The heater could be a simple piece of wire heated by current induced from the main winding or a wire supplied with DC current separately.

10-04-2009 6:18 pm

This would imply that the initial observation that a spot of glue on the tube helped initiate ionisation (in the microwave oven) was valid.

10-04-2009 6:34 pm

I tried three meter readings one with the power at 100 watt, 150 watt and 200 watt.

100 watt exciter power. S-meter:1.0

150 Watt Exciter Power. S-meter: 1.5

200 watt exciter power. S-meter: 1.8

Notice that the glow of ionisation is above the axis of the tube and near the axis of the coil. This is in accordance with the theory of repulsion of unlike charges.

For these tests I removed the screen as it absorbs power.

Incidentally: wearing a Ferrari hat and goggles prevented the recurrence of any feeling of illness.

10-04-2009 10: 25 pm

I re-wired the unit with 4 mm wire this time bypassing the terminal blocks.

Wires directly soldered instead of going through tags to a terminal block

 

I ran the test again at 200 watt and took notes by photography of the S-meter reading.

200 watt tube not struck: S-meter 3.2

 

Struck S-meter: 3.5

S-Meter 3.4

S-meter 3.4

S-meter 3.4

S-meter 3.4

The above photographs show an increase in current when the tube strikes: from 3.2 to 3.4. It is then stable at 3.4.

10-04-2009 10:45 pm

I did a calibration of the S-meter without the tube:

 
S-meter RF Power
3.5 70 Watt
3.4 65 Watt
3.2 60 Watt
3.0 50 Watt

These readings imply that when the tube is inserted and 200 watts applied 60 watt of RF power is emitted and when the tube strikes 65 watt of RF power is radiated.

This means that as the tube is heating up 140 watt is absorbed by the tube of gas and once it strikes this figure goes down to 135  watt.

Before it strikes 140 watt is being used to heat the gas.

After it strikes it means that 135 watt is being given out as heat, UV, light and other forms of radiation.

I doubt the reasoning actually.

 

The S-meter is simply a loop of wire about 6 cm from the coil connected through a diode to a micro-ammeter. I think it reacts to the current in the coil so it is not directly related to the power radiated away. I need an RF power meter placed some distance away to do that.

11-04-2009 10:57 am

I do not think I have the RF design correct. I think I need to earth one side of the coil and keep the other connecting lead as short as possible.

To measure the output RF power, I need an E-field meter. I think it is called a Langmuir probe. It consists of a short antenna, a diode and a high impedance amplifier to a meter. I can the calculate the power from the E-field assuming plane Hertzian waves.

11-04-2009 11:20 am

The circuit worked ok today. I do not think the RF design is too bad I have made the connections to the capacitor the same length to put the current maximum in the coil. I need a bigger tube of hydrogen to fit the coil better and this would ensure that more of the coil's area to intersect the gas.

11-04-2009 12:37 pm

This is my experimental set up.

Experimental Set Up

The power meters are at the top the radio transmitter next down, the tuner unit in under the radio and the reactor is on the right. Some hand meters are on the shelf then on the big shelf underneath is the 24 volt power supply for the transmitter and on the bottom shelf in the 1000 Watt linear amplifier that excites the tomahawk reactor. On the extreme right is a 35 MHz oscilloscope.

11-04-2009 6:44 pm

I calibrated my bolometer with a 60 watt filament electric lamp and obtained a reading at 22 cm of 38 C.

So the heat output of the bulb is proportional to (T2^4-T1^4) = 1.57E9 == 60 watt

The figure at 200 watt without tube was 1.37E10 so the heat output was 8.7 * 60 = 524 watt. and at the figure at 200 watt with the tube in was 4.8E10 so the heat output was 30.57 * 60 = 1.8 KW. The difference is the output due to fusion was 1.2KW.

The output of 524 watt is the figure when the input is 200 watt so there is a geometry factor of 200/524 = 0.38, so applying this to the output figure of 1.2KW gives 458 watt.

However after scaling, as the power out without the tube was 200 watt the power due to fusion comes to about 458 watt.

These are all estimates and I do not know the true figure.

11-04-2009 7 pm

I thought a bit about the heavy conductors, they may be conducting the heat away. I also thought of the parasitic oscillations I got previously. These may be the coil and the plasma oscillating at high frequency with the spark gap limiter acting as a very small capacitor. I did notice that the heating was concentrated near the middle of the coil and that the current in the connecting wires near the capacitor did not get hot while the S-meter went off scale.

The head of the household next door has said he wants me to stop on health grounds and in case of an explosion so I will just have to stop. I hope to find another person with proper facilities to take over.

11-04-2009 8:03 pm

I put the spark gap limiter back and this is also a very small capacitor to allow the parasitic oscillation to take place as this may become the plasma oscillator.

17-04-2009 10 am.

I received a message of concern regarding the use of my reactor in my home from the authorities and the neighbours so I have concluded my experiments at home.

I have sent my two reactors to a contact in the United States so he may test the reactor with view to develop it as a commercial source of electricity.

I will be making another linear tomahawk reactor using a high voltage vacuum capacitor and I will try to find a place where I can test it. I choose the linear type because it easier to make and works better.

16-06-2009 1:20 pm

I spent 7 weeks since the 14 April in a secure unit. The shrinks did not believe this page. I was put in for delusions.

I sent both my reactors to America in order to get them tested but the American Authorities took no interest so I had one sent back, this was the toroidal configuration.

I replaced the 2000 volt capacitor for a 9 KV vacuum capacitor but the coil broke down electrically because the high potential ends were close together. I therefore replaced the toroidal coil for a linear one and rewired with 4 mm enamelled copper wire throughout.

I ran the exciter power to 700 watt and all the connections in the RF feeder circuit got hot, the circuit under test did not break down. With an input power of 100 Watt RF I measured about 400 watt thermal power out. I estimated the output power by using a 60 watt incandescent bulb as a standard candle and compared the reading of an IR thermometer 70 cm from both sources and used Stephan's radiation law to estimate the power from the coil by:

Power from coil=60 watt x (reading from coil^4-ambient^4)/(reading from bulb^4 - ambient^4)

Reading from coil = (273+82) ....1.588E10

Ambient= (273+24) .... 0.778 E10

Reading from Bulb= (273+30)

It is possible that the bulb I used, being of modern construction, gave off most of its energy in the visible so I tried a 40 watt bulb of the old fashioned type and that gave a reading of 56. This makes the power from the coil:

Reading from bulb = (273+56) ....1.172E10

2nd reading from bulb = (273+41) .....0.972E10

So Power = 40 x 0.81/0.39 =83 watt

2nd estimate = 40 x 0.81/0.19 =170 watt.

I make it 83 watt. So 1.3 watt went out as RF, 83 watt went out as heat making a total of 84 watt making 16 watt lost in the connecting components from the exciter to the reactor.

So with 100 watt RF in 170 watt heat out 1.3 watt went out as RF so there was 71.3 watt of fusion power.

 

This indicates that nothing much was happening.

 

This means that the hydrogen is not hot enough for fusion to take place.

 

Linear Tomahawk Reactor

17-06-2009 3:57 am

If I look down the tube as the coil obscures it from the side, I can see that the glowing gas forms a red hot ball around the mid point of the coil and a tube going out from each side. The discharge is predominantly blue to my eyes.

Shot from end showing ball of fire
Note that the brightest part is near the centre line of the Pyrex tube.

Another Shot from end.

The RF current meter is on the 30 amp range and shows 11.4 amp
the current at the mid point of the coil will be higher as a maximum occurs there.

 

Shows ionisation glow bending away from current carrying conductors

19-06-2009 10:34 am

Shows ionisation glow brightest near mid point (300W)

Showing smaller bright area (500W)

 

At 600 watt the insulation broke down and the glow vanished with a sizzle. The ionisation glow did not come back on re-applying 100 watt. After a few minutes the coil had cooled to 134C.

11:36 am

When I examined the tube I found a hole punched in the glass 1 mm in diameter by the electric current through the glass.

End if tube showing hole.

 

19-06-2009 2:22 pm

I put 100 W RF into the test circuit without the tube, the probe read 51. I make the thermal power out 66 watt.

The thermal power out when the probe reading from the reactor was 82 was 167.

Just before making the hole a red glowing tube formed down the middle of the blue glow with a ball of fire at each end. There was a glowing red hot ball of fire in the middle too that was bigger than the ones at the end. Then the light went out with a sizzling noise and I discovered the hole in the tube when it cooled down. The gas must have reached a temperature at the glass of around 1500 C in order to have melted the Pyrex tube. It must have been far hotter inside the gas ball of fire.

21-06-2009 6:18 pm

I put a paper support in the coil to move the tube out of contact with the wires and using a tube of hydrogen at 1 Tor observed the behaviour of the ionisation glow at 600 Watt. This time the plasma did not attack the tube but the paper charred so I ceased the test. The glow was straight down the middle of the coil this time as the tube was kept collinear with the axis.

600 Watt discharge.

Charred Paper in contact with the tube. The part in contact with the wires is just as blackened.

 

22-06-2009 10:06 am

Experiments Using Spectromenter

Spectrograph taken of new hydrogen tube (3 Tor) at 100 watt
note how broad the red line is.

same at 50 watt

Spectrograph taken from side at 88 watt.

Hydrogen emission spectrograph from Wikipedia

23-06-2009 11 am

Result

I make the kinetic temperature 3 million K from the line broadening.

T=(lo/l)^2 x mc^2/k =(25 x 650x10^-9)^2 x ((1 / (6 x10^23)) x (3 x 10^8)^2) / 1.3 x 10^-23 = 3x 10^6

So the kinetic temperature longitudinally is 3 million K and transversely the temperature is 1.9 million K.

23-06-2009 7:33 pm

I bought a radiation monitor when I tried it the background read zero micro Sieverts an hour when I held it close to the reactor with 400 watt exciter power the reading rose briefly to 0.3 micro S/hr but this was probably a shower. So I conclude that there is no alpha, beta or gamma radiation from the reactor.

The power out was calculated as 729 watt for an RF in of 350 watt.

I took the tube out and obtained 530 watt for an RF in of 350 watt

So 200 watt is due to the presence of hydrogen remember there is air inside the tube now.

Serendipitous discovery

I changed to the tube labelled 10^-8 Tor hydrogen and excited it with 350 watt RF, at first the tube glowed red and I took a spectrum, after a few seconds the colour changed to bright yellow and I took another spectrum.

I took a time sequence and these appear to show elemental transmutation from hydrogen to new elements. Time Sequence of Spectra.

First Spectrograph showing dominant red line

Last Spectrograph Showing Dominant Yellow line.

Sample Hydrogen Spectrum

Sample Helium Spectrum

Conclusion

This sequence shows the generation of helium from hydrogen in the reaction mixture.

Unfortunately the tube punched through and the tube was let down to air thus destroying the sample.

26-06-2009 11:55 am

After running the 3 Tor tube at 400 watt for several minutes getting 893 watt of thermal power out I took a photograph after the glow turned yellowish-red.

The photograph did not show the colour because of the automatic colour balance so I have not put it here.

Here is a series of experiments demonstrating the conversion of hydrogen to helium in the reactor.

I allowed it to cool down and then lit the tube with the exciter set at 89 watt:

This spectrograph shows a prominent green line that could be attributed to helium.
The tube glowed blue to my eyes.

Here is a similar tube before transformation again at 89 watt

This is an untransformed tube that glowed pink. It shows the red and
Blue-Green lines of hydrogen.

Conclusion

The hydrogen was transmuted into helium in this test.

28-06-2009 4:24 pm

When I tested the coil without the tube I put in 100 watt RF and got 104 watt thermal power out.

When I put the hydrogen tube in with 100 Watt RF in I got: 146 watt out. and 12 watt RF reverse power without adjusting the tuner. So 42 watt +12 watt = 54 watt fusion with 12 watt electrical gives me an efficiency of 12/54 x 100 %= 22 %

After a few minutes the forward power dropped from 110 watt to 80 watt but the reverse power stayed at 12 watt. I assume the heat at the output transistor had made the transmitter cut down the output power. At first the power from the transmitter increased from 100 to 110 watt but then it dropped back. The reverse power stayed at 12 watt. The RF current read 10.2 amp.

Second Spectrograph after further reaction showing the green line of helium

When I took the tube out the reverse power dropped to zero watt and the forward power rose to 100 watt. The RF current read 12 amp.

As it heats up the yellow line of helium appears

Spectrum taken from side near the centre ball of fire showing mainly helium

30-06-2009 7-55 am

After allowing the tube to cool and reheating in coil after two days standing
The spectra is dimmer than before.

Same tube at 500 watt. Shows that both hydrogen and helium are present.

Conclusion

I don't think the conversion has gone so far as with the tube containing hydrogen at 10-8 Tor

04-07-2009 4:23 pm

Experiment to test the effect of exciter power on the spectrum

This is the emission spectra of a 3 Tor reacted tube at successively higher powers of excitation

100 Watt

200 Watt

300 Watt

400 Watt

500 Watt

600 Watt

700 Watt

The lines simply get brighter this shows that the green helium line is not just because it is taken at a higher power. Note the yellow helium line is absent in these spectrographs. Why? Also taken in daylight so some of the light is due to the sun but not the bright lines.

04-07-2009 4:45 pm

This is the spectrum of a less reacted 3 Tor hydrogen tube.

Spectrum of less reacted tube at 100 watt

This spectrograph shows only hydrogen lines with very weak helium lines indicating that the more reacted tube has more helium in it than this tube which is less reacted. This was taken in daylight so the continuum is probably due to the sun.

Spectrograph of hydrogen gas discharge tube excited by high voltage

This is taken during daylight so the spectrum is due to the sun I will have to try again after dark.

at about 7:30 I did another burn of the gas in a tube with hydrogen at 1 Tor at 100 watt I noticed afterwards that the radiation monitor was flashing a warning at ">7.5 micro Sieverts per hour".

This alarm was triggered by the high voltages operating the gas discharge tube that I used immediately afterwards and so was a false alarm. The discharge tube probably gave off x-rays.

4-7-2009 7:39 pm

I took a solar spectrum from cloud for comparison

Solar Spectrum

As you can see the spectrum I took of the gas discharge and the reacted tube with 400 watts was taken with the solar spectrum as a background. The gas discharge does however show hydrogen and helium lines independently of the solar spectrum and these lines stand out prominently in the foreground. So I am not in error.

When it is dark I will photograph the spectra again.

04-07-2009 9:26 pm - dusk

and at 10:30 when darkness had fallen and turning of all other sources of light apart from a dim lamp in the hall with the door almost closed.

I took the spectrum of the hydrogen gas discharge tube again which is activated by a high voltage:

Hydrogen gas discharge tube emission spectrograph

Here this shows the hydrogen blue and red lines line shows as does the helium green line. I therefore conclude that the original hydrogen gas sample was contaminated by helium.

Used tube at 100 watt in darkness

In this spectrograph there is a little continuum background but the red and blue hydrogen lines are visible and also a strong helium green line. The double red line on the left is not present in the discharge tube. Why? The blue-green hydrogen line is double here too. There is an additional red line in the discharge tube between the doublet red line and the green line in the used tube.

The 3 Tor tube shows a little evidence that some transmutation from hydrogen to helium has taken place as the green line in the used tube is brighter than in the gas discharge tube. Some lines have are present in the used tube that are absent in the discharge tube and visa versa showing that cooking in the reactor has changed the contents of the tube.

5-7-2009 7:09 am

I found the spectrum for oxygen and nitrogen (obvious contaminants):

Nitrogen Spectrum

Oxygen Spectrum

 

It looks like the green and orange line are from nitrogen contamination. I notice that there is an obvious yellow line too.

However this observation does not effect the results of the burn of the tube containing hydrogen at 10-8 Tor.

Having compared the used tube with nitrogen I can see it is not nitrogen. And it is not oxygen either.

2009-7-9 12:25

I did another time sequence of the change in the spectrum over time. I used a tube with hydrogen at a pressure of three tor and 500 watts exciter power. The sequence ends when the solder connecting the capacitor to the inductor melted. During the third sequence the yellow helium line becomes bright as helium is created in the tube..

Second Spectra Sequence showing the transmutation of hydrogen to helium.

I repeated this experiment with a fresh tube containing hydrogen at a pressure of three tor because the last sequence was interrupted by the arrival of a care worker for mum.

This sequence starts with no yellow helium line and ends when the tube failed with a bright helium line, this line may be seen appearing during the sequence as helium is creared.

Third Spectra Sequence showing the transmutation of hydrogen to helium

12-07-2009 11:23 am

On the shelf

Two Tomahawk Reactors, one unfinished

 

Experiment demonstrating total Conversion from hydrogen to helium in tubes containing hydrogen at 10^-8 Tor initially.

Method

The tube of hydrogen was cooked in the reactor with 500 watt RF and spectrographs taken during the process.

At start and finish:

Spectrum of excited hydrogen tube at start 5:54 minutes.
It took me a few seconds to get the camera ready so the transmutation had already started.

Spectrum of helium after transmutation from hydrogen at 7:21 minutes

Transmutation from hydrogen to helium took 87 seconds at 500 watt initially with hydrogen at a pressure of 10^-8 Tor. The reaction is far more vigorous than with tubes containing hydrogen at lower pressures.

Here is a sequence of spectrographs showing the reaction.

Here is an image of the tube after the reaction:

The tube after the reaction above

14-7-2009 10:59 am

I took one of the spent tubes from the previous experiment and excited it. At first it glowed red with hydrogen and then it went white. At low powers it was green and at slightly higher power it was yellow.

I took spectra. The first was when it was pink.

Spectra of spent tube at various exciter power.

17-07-2009 5:49 am

Object

Experiment to show the difference in appearance before and after cooking in reactor.

Method

Visual appearance of tube before and after reaction:

Before - Hydrogen tube at 500 watt

After - Reacted tube at 500 Watt

You can see the green glow of helium in the one below:

After - Reacted tube at 80 Watt.

Conclusion

In the tube with hydrogen at a pressure of 10-8 Tor all the hydrogen is transmuted to helium by 500 watt RF exciter with the generation of power. That shows that the original hunch that low pressure hydrogen inside the inductor of a tuned circuit will generate power by the fusion of light nuclei.

Video showing transmutation of hydrogen to helium with the sudden change in spectral glow from the red of hydrogen to the yellow as the hydrogen runs out and is changed into helium: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iL0eKGkATTA with audio commentary: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C95uhXSGqG4

Video showing spectral change during transmutation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJmkSaANkAQ

Another video showing spectral change during transmutation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YY57sKZS6c

 

2-8-2009 8:24 am

I am now testing the theory that a 400 am pulse will start a reaction. I'm using the same tank circuit as before but have a 1.5 turn winding around it that will take a 400 amp pulse. It is switched by a car (mini) starter relay and the current is from a car battery. The starter relay is controlled by another relay and a switch. The switch is a light flasher switch and will pulse the relays. The idea is that the 400 amp pulse will send an impulse to the tank circuit and this will then ring. The current will ionise the gas and ignite the fusion reactions that will then maintain oscillations. Power will be taken from an additional two turn 6 amp winding that will be connected to a 50 ohm load through a coaxial switch. I am using Tesla's induction coil system with interrupted DC to excite a tuned circuit.

Here is the DC switching arrangement minus the 1.5 turn coil.

400 amp ignition circuit

2-08-2009 6:43 pm

Ignition circuit with coil reunited with capacitor tank circuit not completed.

3-8-2009 8:32

This set up did not work as I need more turns on the secondary.
I have made an enquiry for the supply of a 3000 T coil.

 

21-08-2009 3:20 pm

I did another run with another hydrogen tube at pressure 10^-8 Tor and towards the end the tube had a green glow indicating helium. Then the tube collapsed and the glow became yellow. This time I turned the reactor round so I viewed it from the end.

I found the reflected power increased as before until I retuned the matching unit so the reflected power went down to nearly zero.

21-08-2009 9:54 pm

The reflected power went high when the tube lit up and then I adjusted the tuner matching unit to bring the reflected power to zero. At the end when it turned yellow the reflected power went up again and it stayed high as I adjusted the matching unit.
 
The reflected power was non linear with respect to the exciter power, it went up to 250 watt when the exciter power was 500 watt and fell to 100 watt when I reduced the exciter power to 300 watt. That is 2.5:1 as opposed to 1.6:1

The hot region is restricted to the middle 5 mm of the tube. Only on turn of the coil shows any sign of being hot and the softened region of the tube is in this region too.

12-09-2009 07:00 am

I did the experiment again (a few days ago) with a new tube of hydrogen at a pressure of 10^-8 Tor. This time towards the end of the reaction I noticed a green glow coming from the cooler part of the tube.

12-09-2009 9:40 pm

I did another spectrum of a spent tube to see what colour it was. I could see the green line probably of helium.

Spectrum of spent tube.

 

13-09-2009 06:25 pm

I did another experiment to see what happened to the spent tube when I increased the power. At first the glow in the tube was quite green then it went white and then yellow and when I reached 700 watt it went white again and then the tube melted and the coil became distorted.

As I turned the power down it went dull yellow then the glow went out.

The reverse power rose then fell then rose again. I did adjust the tuner but this was the residual reverse power.

13-09-2009 06:35 pm

Once it had cooled I re-energised the distorted tube at 100 watt and the glow was green again.

29-09-2009 12:45 am

Experiment

Object: To see if I could ionise air and melt the tube.

I put a tube that had failed and was full of air at atmospheric pressure into the reactor and energised the exciter with 700 watt. After about 5 minutes the coil got very hot and some more of the enamel came off the middle three turns but the air did not ionise and the tube did not melt.

Conclusion:

The reactor requires gas at lower pressure than atmospheric to ionise and the melting of the tube is connected to the formation of ionised gas.

07-10-2009 10:15 pm

Experiment to observe the colour of the discharge at various powers in a used tube.

Observation:

I put a used tube in the coil and ran the exciter up to 190 watt, the discharge is green. When I increased power to 220 Watt the discharge is red.

No yellow discharge was seen and the tube did not melt.

Conclusion the colour of the glow depends on the power. So the helium discharge is stronger at 190 watts but the hydrogen discharge predominates at 220 watt. This power is too low to release sodium from the glass.

9-10-2009

I have now completed my tests with radio frequency and sold my radio equipment.

12-10-2009

I completed the pulsed version of the reactor using a bobbin of 40 SWG wire as the coil, I had to make a rough connection to the near inside end of the coil by making a hole in the bobbin bigger and soldering a wire to the exposed wire on the inside. At 8 a bobbin this is cheaper than getting a coil wound at 360.

When connected the 10 volt pulses yield about 3500 volt across the capacitor and the circuit resonates at about 5000 Hz.

I'm thinking of using an audio frequency oscillator and a high power audio amplifier set to the resonant frequency to excite it.

Pulsed reactor without tube.

The battery is switched with a starter relay. It delivers about 300 amp at 12 volt.

 

12-10-2009 8:44 pm

I calculated that there are about 14000 turns on the coil and that the pulsed power is about 3600 watt but that the power in the resonator as shown by measurements is about 2000 volts at 1.5 Amp or about 3000 watt.

25-11-2009 6:15 pm

I have now purchased a new RF exciter to replace the one I sold because of psychiatric pressure and did another test.

I am using a spent tube in my reactor which had hydrogen at 10^-8 Tor inside. It still contains hydrogen so I am trying it with my 100 Watt exciter.

 

I have a radiation meter which is not calibrated but gives an indication of radiated power and a Geiger counter that reads in microsavarts per hour. There is also a electromagnetic field strength meter calibrated in KV/meter.

 

I found that on powering up there was no match and I had to adjust the capacitor to get the tube to strike and the VSWR down to zero. The radiation meter read 44 at that point and the exciter 100 watt.

 

As the gas heated up the reverse power slowly increased to 5 watt and the radiation meter rose to 45. The gamma detector indicated gamma rays but it does from time to time anyway due to background. The RF field meter read about 300 volts/meter and rose slightly during the run.

 

I adjusted the capacitor (decrease) and the reverse power fell to 1 watt the radiation meter stayed at 45 watt. The exciter power remained constant at 100 watt throughout. The radiation meter rose to 46 as the reverse power rose to 4 watt.

 

When the tube cools I will try it without the tube.

25-11-2009 6:28 pm 

I found I could not get the exciter power more than 75 watt and the reverse power 7 watt RF E-filed 300 volts/meter radiation meter 44. The gamma counter gave one burst over the 2 minute test. The reverse power did not rise.

I only feel slightly ill. 

25-11-2009 7:27

 

I calculate the excess radiated power was 1.4 watt. This is about the value of the minimum reverse power that I measured.

 

So the fusion power generated was 1.4 watt.

26-11-2009 7:10

I ran another test this evening. I set the exciter on 100 watt and tuned the reactor so give zero reverse power. The radiation meter read 34. After a while the reverse power crept up and the radiation monitor rose to 40. Then the exciter power dropped as the reactor went out of tune. The gamma indicator read several cycles of 2 microsavarts per hour. I retuned the capacitor on the reactor to bring the reverse power back to zero. When the reactor was out of tune the tube dimmed a bit after retuning the tube brightness returned.

 

The reverse power crept up so I retuned the reactor to keep the reverse power to zero and the radiation monitor rose to 44. The reverse power crept up again then became irreducible at 2 watt. The radiation monitor stayed at 44.

 

I re-calculated that the total power radiated from the device was 100 watt approx and the radiation monitor gives a more sensitive indication of the power but is un-calibrated.  

 

So the power excess was approx 100x 44/34 = 30 watt.

 

The estimate of 64 watt is calculated from the E-field meter of 300 volts/meter. I recalculate here. The meter is at a distance of about 400 mm. So the power incident on the meter is 300^2/300 Watt/Meter^2 = 300 watt/m^2 so the total power = area of sphere at 400 mm x 300 watt = 300 x 2/3 pi 0.4^2 = 100 watt. (I think the area of a sphere of radius R is R^2 x 2/3 x pi.

 

So the power due to fusion was 30 watt approx.

The tube I used is an old tube and the markings have come off so I do not know the pressure inside. I think it is higher than 10^-7 Tor.

The reason that I think it is higher is that is has not been deformed by melting as much as the others.

2-12-2009 3:00 pm

I did another run today and something remarkable happened. As the RF meter rose to read 40 the reverse power rose to about 7 watt and the transmitter automatically cut the exciter power from 100 watt to 80 watt the protect the transistor however the RF meter remained steady at 40. The calibrated E-field meter did not change either.

This appears to indicate that the power out remained at about 120 watt for an exciter power of 80 watt making the power generated by fusion to be 40 watt.

I repeated this some time later with the same result.
 

Here is the photographic evidence:

Time Sequence of meter readings as gas heats up. The file name shows the year, the date and the time of the picture.

All I can be sure of is that as the reverse power rose the RF meter which is monitering radiated power increased its value. These changes were by more than the thickness of the line and about one division of the RF meter and at about the 5 watt point of the reverse power meter.

If there was no power generated the power radiated would go down as the reverse power raised.

Video of meter readings during a burn. The reactor is not visible. :http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhFqrk6ACXI

11-12-2009 10:00 pm

Video of a demonstration of fusion power showing about 50 watt being developed and directly converted to electrical power at 3.7 MHz: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2xIfZHee5Q

Video: Introduction to my fusion experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaHbN8CKd8Q

31/12/2009 0:50 am

I did another experiment tonight. As before the transmitted power indicator rose from 35 to 45 scale divisions and the newly attached current meter showed an increase of circulating current from 9 amp to 12 amp. The Geiger counter gave a reading of up to >0.5 micro Sieverts an hour. And the reverse power meter rose from 0 to 5 watt. I then changed the capacitor of the reactor to give minimum reverse power.  The transmitted power indicator did not change much and the current meter rose a little but I found I could not reduce the reverse power below 2 watt. I conclude that I was generating 2 watts of fusion power with 100 watt exciter power. I noticed that when I turned off the exciter the Geiger counter reading showed >0.3 micro Sieverts per hour that lasted for several seconds.

31/12/2009 12:50 pm

I did another experiment today. Here I used a Pyrex test tube containing hydrogen at a pressure of 3 Tor. The reactor was excited with 100 Watt RF at 3.7 MHz. It settled down quickly and by tuning the reactor I found that the reverse power could not be reduced to below 2 Watt. I surmise that this power in being generated in the gas by fusion of protons.

The radiation level was only slightly above background. Here is my video of the run.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzT4QA6ymLU

This second video shows the background after the exciter was turned off.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJFa7qcujXA

1-1-2010 9 pm

I tried the experiment with the lower pressure hydrogen tube (10^-4 Tor) and got the increasing radio radiation that I saw before. This did not occur with the high pressure hydrogen tube (3Tor).

I would like to repeat this experiment with a tube containing hydrogen at a pressure of 10^-8Tor. The increasing radiated power may be greater with this lower pressure.

I would also like to try a hydrogen pressure of 100 Tor with an exciter power of 1.5 KW to see if there is a greater ratio of increased power to exciter power. This will have to wait until I can afford another, bigger linear amplifier.

The residual 2 watt reverse power is due to a mismatch but according to theory the reverse power should go down to zero and then up again as the resistance of the plasma goes down to zero and then increases negatively as power is generated in the hot gas.

05-01-2010 11:25 pm

I did another experiment this evening and here is the video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7UlcNwKMHvc

This was done with low pressure hydrogen. The effect is weakening as it is a spent tube.

14-01-2010 00:12

I did two further experiments using a deuterium spectral tube in the reactor coil, one with an EHT exciter to ionise the gas the other one without. On both occasions nothing happened. This may be because the bore of the tube was very small compared to the diameter of the coil.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6Q9bBfqHOA

In this video nothing happens.

but:

When I uploaded the video to U tube I could only get 56 seconds to load and that took 9 hours to upload on a 100 MBts cable line indicating that a very large file had been generated containing a huge number of errors. This indicates that radiation was being received by the digital camera. The gieger counter did show strong activity but that does not show neutrons and that amount of activity does not normally affect the camera so it looks like a large count of neutrons were generated that effected the camera indicating the fusion was going on.

03-02-2010 9:20 pm

I am now starting to rebuild the reactor with a Deuterium tube instead of hydrogen using a deuterium spectral tube. I have replaced the coil with one wound round the tube using 1 mm enamelled copper wire and since I could not get a balance using the system at the design resonant frequency of 7.2 MHz I will probably have to alter the matching exciter coil. I will need to buy a replacement grid dip meter as I sold the old one needlessly as a result of a psychological attack by a person I thought was a friend.

Reactor with deuterium spectral tube.

15-02-2010 5:46 pm

Yesterday I calculated the dynamic impedance of the tuned circuit and adjusted the inductor to be resonant at about 14MHz and then calculated the turns ratio for the primary and therefore the number of turns. This came to 3. I then wound the coil and mounted in place round the deuterium tube.

Image showing coil on Deuterium reactor.

I have ordered a new grid dip oscillator from an amateur radio store and that should arrive next week. I have also bid for one on Ebay that may also arrive next week. I should then be able to tune the deuterium reactor to resonate at 14.1 MHz and then use the transmitter to excite it at the same frequency.

Since the pulsed reactor did not work I intend to disassemble it and build another reactor to take the bigger hydrogen tubes. I will not be able to tune this either until I have the GDO.

16-02-2010 12 noon.

I completed the new hydrogen reactor today using the old coil. I have to wait for the GDO to tune it before I can use it.

New Hydrogen Reactor

20-02-2010 8 pm

I did some more tests today with my new reactor. I put two of the spent tubes in and they glowed greenish but the reverse power did not drop and stayed at around 7 watt with 40 watt forward power.

The Geiger counter gave readings as high at >7.3 microsavarts an hour and signalled a dangerous level of activity.

I repeated this with another unused tube that I think has hydrogen at a pressure of 3 Tor inside (the marking has come off) and the tube lit up with a blue glow the radio power meter increased a little after a while and the reverse power stayed at about 7 watts after increasing from 5 watts. The Geiger counter began to flash a warning at >5.3 microsavarts per hour radiation dose.

This is the fusion reactor with the Geiger counter flashing a warning of a dangerous dose of 5.3 microsavarts an hour.

My fingers are tingling now and it is feeling hot.

24-02-2010 4:02 pm

I have now matched the reactor coil without the hydrogen tube and I find a deflection on the radiometer of 65 that is with 100 watt in and 4 watt reflected power. I found I could get a better match with one turn on the primary.

Reactor coil without tube

Using the same one turn coil I put the hydrogen tube in the coil and turned on the exciter at 100 watt 3.7 MHz. The reverse power was about 7 watt and the deflection on the radiometer was 60.

Assuming the radiated power is equal to the input power ie 96 watt == 65 then the radiated power with the tube in place was 88.6, so with 7 watt reverse power the total power is 95.6 so 4.4 watt is lost in heating the gas.

I need to repeat this at higher exciter power to plot a graph of total power against exciter power.

I then put a lower pressure tube 1E-4 Tor in that I had used before and glowed greenish. This gave a deflection on the radiometer of 65 and a reverse power of 5 watt. That gives a total power of  101 watt.

Coil with Hydrogen at a pressure of 1E-4 Tor

I put another used tube with hydrogen at a pressure of 1E-8 Tor that glowed green in the coil and the radiometer deflected to 64 and the reverse power indicated 5.5 watt. This indicated a total power of 100 watt.

Coil with hydrogen at 1E-8 Tor.

The fact that there was no loss of power in these last results indicates that some power is being generated by the gas.

Both these used tubes glowed green indicating that total transformation had taken place from hydrogen to helium so there was very little hydrogen left.

I am no longer allowed to buy hydrogen tubes so I cannot try this with fresh tubes.

25-02-2010 8:55 pm

I bought a radio frequency transformer today so I could match the impedance of the reactor properly. The reading of the radiometer with no tube and a match of 1:1 was 70. That is with 100 watt exciter power. The reading on the radiometer with the tube containing hydrogen at 3 Tor was 60 indicating that some power was lost in the gas. When I put the spent tube in that originally contained hydrogen at 1E-8 Tor the reading on the radiometer was 63.

I cannot tell from this if any power was generated in the tube but the readings indicate an overall loss.

Variable radio frequency transformer inserted to get a good match from the transmitter to reactor.

26 - 02 - 2010 2:25

Today I fitted a spark gap as before to test if this changed the power out as I previously thought a parasitic oscillation had given the extra power as the spark gap forms a very small capacitor so making another tuned circuit path to oscillate.

Spark Gap introduced

I found with the tube containing hydrogen at 1E-8 Tor the reading on the radiometer was 72. But with the tube containing hydrogen at 3 tor the reading was 65.

Spark Gap with hydrogen tube (3 Tor).

As before during the experiment the Geiger counter started low but increased to 5.3 microsaverts per hour after a few minutes.

The reading for no tube was 72 at 100 watt exciter power so the reading of 72 watt indicates no excess power.

26/6/2010 4:40 pm

Circuit Diagram and pictures

 

Circuit Diagram

Reactor view.

Not shown in diagram is the spark gap limiter (regulator) which is across the coil.

Here are the meter readings, Power in 70 watt, power out 30 watt Rf field at about 30 cm 300 volt per meter

Here is a plot of output power Watt against Exciter Power Watt

26/06/2010 6:29 pm

The plot above indicates that the output power increases faster than the input power and indicates a function of:

output power = input power x k exp (m).

26/06/2010 6:30 pm

Here is a plot of the predicted characteristics

Power out W against power in. W

27/06/2010 10:25 am

This curve is the reactor characteristic.

29/06/2010 9:17 am

Please would somebody take up this invention as I have had my money hijacked by the British authorities and cannot proceed any further.

30/06/2010 3:40 am

I retuned my reactor with my antenna analyser and I was able to deliver more power so I did some further points on the graph.

 

20 5
30 10
40 12
50 20
60 26
70 32
80 41
90 52
100 60
100 60
90 50
80 40
70 32
60 26
50 20
40 12
30 10
20 6
10 2
10 2
100 60

 

Reactor Characteristic with straight line joining end points for comparison. As you can see the curve continues to curve upwards. The change in slope near the top occurs when the gas starts to glow. This obviously removes energy.

It looks like there are two ionisation points one at 30 watt input power and one at 90 watt input power.

30-06-2010 6:57 am

Plot of ratio of power out over power in against power in.

It becomes a straight line with a lope of (0.6-0.45)/(100-70) = 0.15/30 =0.005 (=m)

So line is y=0.005x+0.1 so for unity y=1 so x=(1-0.1)/0.005 = 180 watt.

30/06/2010 7:28 am

Speculation

Up to 300 watt

Up to 4KW in 80 KW out.

1/07/2010 11:22 pm

Today I gave my reactor to a friend to test as he has the right equipment. He did not report a result and I think I lost it. I do have another one under construction all it needs is a coil and a hydrogen tube.

1/07/2010 11:46 pm

I now have the coil. The reactor in tuned to 3.700 MHz. Now I need a tube of hydrogen gas.

I need a 25 mm diameter tube 100 mm long.

02/07/2010 12:04 am

I have ascertained that RF current meter on the board read 0.2 units at 100 watt with a VSWR of 1.5 (reflected power 5 watt) without a tube.

2/7/2010 2 pm

I bought a second power meter to read the output power this morning.

Here is a chart of the readings:

Power out W against Power in. No tube.

New Reactor:

This reactor uses an older coil which is of 2 mm wire and is 28 mm inside diameter 9 cm long with 15 turns it takes a 25 mm tube.

The current at 100 W was 7.5 amp and the smaller current indicator read 0.2. The small current indicator is sensitive to current in the centre region of the coil while the RF current meter shows the current near the capacitor. These will be different and the current near the mid point of the coil will be higher than the current near the capacitor because it is a wave.

2/7/2010 3:11 pm

I have located a 10 cm by 25 mm hydrogen tube (pressure 1 Tor) and placed it inside the coil. With 110 watt the RF current meter reads 8.4 Amp and the small current meter reads 0.5 the VSWR is 1.2 (reverse power 5 W). It is not glowing.

2/7/2010 4:02 pm

I have wound a new coil with 3 mm wire 27 mm in diameter, 10 cm long with 15 Turns. The capacitor had to be retuned as it was only 9 cm long as it turned out. I ran 90 watt in and the RF current was 9 amp the small meter read 0.2. the VSWR was 1.8 and the reverse power 8 watt. The tube does not glow.

It turned out that there is a hole in the tube so it contains air at atmospheric pressure. That it why it does not glow.

2/7/2010 4:52 pm

I found a cable fault and to get a better tuning point I had to make the coil shorter I also found the VSWR was better without the transformer. The VSWR is now 1.7.

Power in     Power out

10                 2.4
20                 5.2
30                 10
40                  13
50                 19
60                  20
 

2/7/2010 5:11 pm

I put the coil with the thin wire back as the thick wire one needed another turn but the wire was not long enough.

Power in        Power out (watt)
10                    3
20                    6
30                   10
40                    15
50                    20
60                    25
70                    29
80                    31
90                    39
100                    42
 

Chart comparing no tube (series 1) with tube (series 2) Output V Input Watt.

It does show the output power rising above the "no tube" line this indicating that the effect is there. The dip toward the end indicates that the glow discharge is about to strike.

2/7/2010 6:45 pm

Experiment with a deuterium spectral tube.

Input Power  Output Power (watt)

10                    5
20                    8
30                    14
40                    19
50                    25
60                    29
70                    33
80                    38
90                    40
100                  45
110                   50

Deuterium is series 3. as seen the plot is always above the hydrogen plot. This would indicate that Deuterium gives out energy more easily. The towards the end indicates that the gas glow discharge is about to commence.

02/07/2010 11:48 pm

New coil and tube.

Power in   Power out Watt
0                0
10               5
20                7
30                12
40                18
50                22
60                28
70                30
80                36
90                40
100              45
110              49

The new tube, new coil, is series 4

The RF current was 12.6 and the small meter read 0 VSWR went to 1 then rose to 1.4 at 110 Watt Exciter power

New coil of 3 mm wire 15T 10 cm long 27 mm diameter.

I could not get the tube to glow.

4/7/2010 1:53 pm

I now have my reactor back.

Input Power        Output Power with tube        No Tube
110                        65                                        70
100                        60                                          65 
90                           51                                          60
80                           48                                        50
70                            41                                        46
60                            36                                        40
50                            30                                        32
40                            26                                        28
30                            18 tube stopped glowing       20
20                            10                                        11
10                              6                                          5.1
  5                              2.7                                        3
  2                               1                                           1
  1                                0.4                                        0.5

Reactor Characteristic with tube (series 2) and without tube (series 1). Watt

There is a dip at 90 watt. There is no sign of an exponential rise. However the "with tube" line rises towards the "no tube" line at higher powers.

Ratio of power out over power in against power in No tube: series 2 with tube series 1

There is no tendency for the ratio to increase as the power in rises. The ratio seems to approaching 0.6.

New arrangement with second meter

6-7-2010 4:46 pm

Ratio power out over power in series 1 no tube, series 2 tube with glow series 3 tube no glow glow struck after dip, big tube.

7-7-2010 9:09 pm

Small tube.

The small tube lit at a lower power than the big tube.

Plot of ratio of power out/power in for power in for smaller tube. Gas pressure 1 Tor.

10-7-2010 11:37 am

I have discovered the dummy load I use on the output is open circuit and has a VSWR of 1.8 this may be why the output power does not go up.

I hope to take it for repair on Monday.

Previous Result Below:

Power Ratio (Output/Input) against input power (watt)

 

Calibration Check:

 11-7-2010 2:21 pm

Power Display    Watt Meter
21                                 10
37                                 20
49                                 30
58                                 40
66                                 50
73                                 60
79                                 70
85                                 80
90                                 91
96                                 100
100                               110

 

Graph of Above

 

Power Display Reading V Meter Reading (Watt)

 

This dial reading explains the results I got.

This invalidates my claim.

11/07/2010 3:43

The meters only read correctly when terminated by a matching load. The reactor may be affecting the reading.

13/07/2010 8:02 pm

More bad news. The radioactivity I reported was a false positive caused by the Geiger counter I had being fitted with a flat battery. I was using the battery it came with and when I put a new one in today this false positive disappeared indicating there was no radioactivity present.

I cannot check it with the high power exciter now though but there is no secondary radiation so neutron activation did not occur.

16-7-2010 11:18 am

I looked up the kinetic energy as an equivalent temperature and saw that 17KeV is equivalent to about 200 Million degrees Kelvin. At this temperature the overall reaction 4P>He occurs. I have read somewhere that no neutrons are generated in this reaction.

Now in my tube there is s coil with alternating radio frequency current flowing. That generates an alternating electric field across the coil. It is a wave that has a current peak near the mid point of the coil.

This field heats the gas which then ionises and an ion current flows. The electric field strength depends on the radio frequency power density. I feed it with up to 800 watt but because I have a resonant circuit the power density in the coil is about ten times that or 8 KW. Now the chamber is only 6 cm long and I measured the eletric field across the coil at 8KV so the ions can get 8KeV energy. This is an equivalent temperature of 90 Million Kelvin. This is hot enough for fusion.

Using proportionality and that the field strength rises with the square root of the power I estimate that to reach 200 MK I will need 4KW radio frequency power in.

I may acheive the same if I had a higher Q for my circuit. If I had a Q of 100 then the RF potential across the coil would rise to 16 KeV and I would only need 900 Watt to reach 200 MK.

However fusion occurs at a lower temperature and so power would be generated at lower exciter power than 800 watt.

Measurement with an oscilloscope reveals that at 20 Watt exciter power the radio frequency potential is 800 Volt but the probe reduces the Q thus reducing the RF potential.

I used a loop of wire thus making a 16:1 transformer and the measured rf potential (peak to peak) was 100 volt across the loop thus making the total potential across the coil as 1600 volt at 100 watt exciter power so to reach 17000 volt would require 12KW

At 20 Watt the voltage is 40 volt across the loop making the RF potential across the coil of 640 volt.

At current meter reading of 6 amp the dial reading of the little meter ws 1.

At 70 watt exciter power the current was 6 amp at the end connection to the coil and the rf potential was 1280 volt so the energy in the circuit was 7680 Joule this is 109 times the exciter power so the Q is 109. This means that at 800 watt exciter power the energy content would be 87200 Joule so the rf potential would rise to 4300 volt and the current to 20.2 amp. That means I would require 12.5 KW to reach 17KeV. The current flowing would be 78.8 Amp so I would need thicker wire.

However at 4.3 KeV the equivalent temperature is 50 MK so some fusion would be going on.

At 1.28 KeV the equivalent temperature is 15 MK so I would still expect fusion to take place.

That is with hydrogen. With deuterium I would expect it to take off at 50 watt exciter power.

With the exciter power of 100 watt the Geiger counter registered only background.
 

21-07-2010 03:36 am

 

Input  Output

0           0
10         6
20         12
30         20
40         29
50         35
60         41
70         49
80         56
90         65
100       70
110        80 tube lit up
110        75
100        70
90           60
80           53
70           49
60           41
50           36
40            28
30            20
20            14
10             06
0                 0

 

Graph of power out against power in for glowing (ascending series) and non glowing (descending Series) case.

Ratio power out /power in descending series lit tube

 

Ratio power out against power in, ascending series (tube not lit)

 

In this investigation I corrected the tuning during the run by altering the capacitor to maximise the output.

2-2-2010 12:45 am

In this experiment I lit the tube first then reduced power so it was just glowing then increased the power ten watts at a time, keeping the tuning adjusted for minimum VSWR at the transmitter.

Raw Data:

Input Power   Output Power
50                    35
60                    40
70                    48
80                    50
90                    56
100                  60
110                  70

Watt

Series 1 Output Power against input power Watt

Series 2 Output Power-input Power against input Power Watt

As you see, towards the end, between 100 watt and 110 watt input the loss stops increasing.

Output Power/Input Power against input Power (Watt)

I think the first maximum is an ionisation potential as is the point of inflexion but the rise at the end is due to power given out by the reaction compensating for the loss.

I think this is evidence of power being given out by a fusion reaction.

By visually estimating it looks like the reactor will cancel the loss at input 140 watt, if the last upward curve continues to rise.

10-8-2010 8:45

I repeated the above experiment this evening with the following result.

 

Power out/Power in against power in. (Watt)

In this experiment I maximised the power out for each exciter power setting. This increased the reverse power from the reactor to the transmitter. In order to maximise the output power I altered the capacitor setting.

10-8-2010 10: 44 pm

In this experiment I plotted the reading of the indicators against Power in

Series 1 radiated power indicator x 1

Series 2 Circulating current indicator x 100

Series 3 Reverse power (watt) x 10

12-08-2010 1:46 pm

This experiment shows the regions of the reactor

Annotated photograph showing region of reactor.

14-8-2010 11:00 pm

Annotated Photograph Showing central region

The central region is where the maximum current flows and it is the hottest part of the discharge. This is the longwise region where the fusion reactions occur.

 

14-8-2010 11:30pm

I did another experiment, this time without the load attached as the gas reaches a higher temperature for the same exciter power as with the load like this. I plotted the indicator readings against the exciter power

This appears to show the power output falling between 105 watt exciter power and 110 watt exciter power. I could not adjust the exciter power to 110 watt unless I allowed the reverse power to rise from 0.5 to 6 watt.

29-08-2020 8:10 pm

I found that adjusting the tuning control changed the ratio of transmitted power to power delivered to the load so in the next experiment I adjusted for maximum power delivered to the load.

I plotted the ratio power out/exciter power against exciter power for two conditions: tube lit at start and tube lit when is struck at about 90 watt.

Series 1 unlit at start, series two lit at start.

This experiment does not indicate that the power will continue to rise as the exciter power increases but it might do. If you mentally put in the trend it looks like the loss increases with exciter power at first then diminishes.

29-8-2010 9:10 pm

I measured the background radiation as 0 to 0.1 μS per hour. 

When I put the Exciter power up to 110 watt with the load attached to radiation level rose to 6.5 μS per hour.

However when I repeated this I found the high level did not come back and it seems to have been a cosmic ray burst.

30-08-2010 12:25 am

Here I re-adjusted the small diameter coiled reactor for a better dynamic impedance and used a 1 Tor tube. When I ran the reactor up to 110 watt exciter power there was a burst of radiation of about 0.3 μS per hour.

Here it may be seen that the loss increases after 80 watt exciter power as the exciter power increases with a hiccup at 95 watt.

From these curves I suggest that the big diameter tube contains hydrogen gas at 10-4 Tor and so fusion takes place at lower exciter power.

It is possible that the humps and dips of the curve correspond to different species in the gas fusing and the hump above (the maxima) corresponds to tritium in the gas reacting as it requires a much smaller energy and therefore a smaller mean free path and will therefore manifest itself at higher pressure. This corresponds to the first maxima in the big tube reactor where the second maxima corresponds to deuterium reacting and the third maxima will be hydrogen protons reacting with deuterium.

It would be more enlightening to calculate the energies involved from the power and the mean free path.

30-08-2010 1:34 am

Here is the result for the deuterium spectral tube.

Series 1: Power Ratio against exciter power (w). Inconclusive. The tube did not light.

I uploaded a couple of graphs today, they show maxima that may correspond to species fusing. The first may be due to Deuterium fusing to make power and its position along the exciter power axis may be due to the collision energy required. The collision energy is given by mean free path x e-field. The energy is constant but the mean free path varies from pressure to pressure so higher pressures require the collision energy to be reached at higher power levels.

The mean free path at 1 Tor is: 100 micro meters or 1E-4 meter at 10-4 Tor it is 10 cm At 1 Tor the peak was at 100 watt so the electric field was 8767 volts/meter (from S=100/area of tube = 100/4.9E-4=204081 watt/meter2 so E=SQR (S/2.655E-3)=SQR (204081/2.655E-3)=8767.3 volt/meter so the collision energy is: 0.876 eV this probably corresponds to an ionisation potential but at 10-4 Tor the mean free path is 10 cm and at 70 watt the electric field is: 6600 volt/meter (because the coil is 30 mm in diameter instead of 25 mm) so the collision energy is therefore 660 eV and is probably due to D + P>He3. At 1 Tor this peak would occur at  only very high power of over 100 million watts.  660 eV corresponds to 7.6 MK.

In fact direct measurement across the coil indicated a PD of 2000 V AC. This points to a collision energy of between 1 KeV and 2 KeV. This is correct for the D + D reaction.
 

5-9-2010 7:39 pm

Here is a plot of power ratio against exciter power for a spent tube at 10-8 Tor

It looks like an overall fall of power ratio after an initial rise finishing with a rise at 110 watt. If you average the curve then it goes down after the initial rise then rises again.

16-09-2010 09:34

I now realise that my estimate of the output power is low by a factor of two because the output power is split in two by the circuit and only half is registered.

Here are the revised figures, it shows that power is being generated by the system

This chart shows that the gain varies from 1.17 to 1.29 this is predicted to rise as more exciter power is applied.

Fusion Power Generated:

The vertical axis is the power generated and the horizontal axis is the exciter power. (WATT)

01-10-2010 7:42 pm

I did another couple of experiments with two tubes, one with hydrogen pressure 1 Tor the other Pressure 10-5 Tor. The low pressure tube showed no power generation but the high pressure tube generated about 4 Watt falling to zero when the tube started to glow.

The RF radiated power of the 1 Tor tube was lower than the RF radiated power of the low pressure tube.

The Geiger Counter did indicate increased radioactivity during the run of the low pressure tube but not the higher pressure tube.

02-10-2010 2:32 am

I did an experiment without a tube inside the coil and this time the output on one port was exactly half the exciter power meaning that the total output power is equal to the exciter power.

10-10-2010 11:53 pm

I did another experiment on the big tube and found the power out increased as the power in increased but that the increase of the power out exceeded the increase of the power in.

Here is a plot of power out - power in.

Here I took the output from the right hand port and doubled it to get the total power and then subtracted the input power.

If you assume the power transfer is directional and plot the output from the RH port - input on the LH Port then we get:

Here we see a loss that stops increasing at 100 watt and then rises at 110 watt.

I need more exciter power to test the reactor at higher input powers.

Output -input as a fraction of the input power.

Output as a fraction of the input power

I went to a friends house and he did a rough test and this is what he reported to 400 watt.

Output against exciter power

 

 

Output as a fraction of input to 400 watt exciter power

However when he first put the exciter on he exclaimed that the output had shot up to 2000 watt and the spark gap limiter came into operation.

He then clamped up.

As you see his reported results do not match my results up to 110 watt.

His exciter is capable of generating 800 watt. I do not think he reported the results correctly but as I could not see his meters I do not know.  

 

20/10/2016 22:53:54

I have been released from detention again but my GP rejects all my claims to have made anything. However I am starting on a variation with the object of a reactor that oscillates at a much lower frequency. I have done some initial design work using my application "Tuned" recovered after my system suffered a cyber attack.

This design is for 50 Hz to be used as a domestic power supply. What I build depends on what is possible.

I have purchased a coil winder for the purpose but the wire has to be fed by hand.

Coil Winder Mounted on Table.

15-12-2011 21:46  GMT

The best coil I can get resonates at 10 KHz and has I high Q and dynamic resistance. I can make 2 of these. I am using a ready made coil.

 

 

I have also bought a 400 Watt AF amplifier to be the exciter.

 

 

Here I have made a primary to be fed by the exciter. The primary is 8 T and the secondary is 480 T so with 200 watts input, that is about 20 volt the output potential will be 1200 V but with a Q of 200 the resonant peak potential will be about 240000 V. This is sufficient to fuse protons with an equivalent temperature of 2 billion K.

05-12-2011 23:32 GMT

Close up of the end of the winding.

Here I put a loop of the end of the winding to bring the potential to each end of the energy tube. The cut ends will be connected to a capacitor. The inductor is 97 micro-henries.

05-12-2011 22:44.

The current in the primary is expected to be 5 Amp. So the induced current in the secondary will be 83 mA but with a Q of 235 the current will be 19 A so the current induced in the plasma will be 9400 A.

6-12-2011 22:34

Coil assembly without box support

This is the main coil assembly, the output of the amplifier is to be connected to the primary and the microphone input to another smaller loop of wire near the main coil. The correct polarity for positive feedback is to be found experimentally. In this circuit the potential across the coil may rise to 8KV and the spark gap at the back of the capacitor will limit at about that.

08-12-2011 10:29

I have wound a coil on the plastic former. I used all the wire on the bobbin and I was able to wind 18166 turns. According to my calculator this will resonate at 58 Hz with a capacitor of 1 micro-farad.

 

09-12-2011 23:31

Lash-Up with exciter

22/12/2012 18:09

I purchased a few ceramic tubes and here is a photo of one. This is for the new 50 Hz reactor.

Reaction tube. It is 11 mm od and 6mm id it is 140 mm long.

If the plasma current flows in this gas it will have a high current density. The inside radius is 3 mm so the circulating current will be in an area of 6E-3 x 50E-3 or 300E-6 m^2 so the current density of the 600 Amp current will be 2 E6 amps per m^2.

28-12-2012 20:56

Illustration of a reactor secondary coil.

Basic design illustration with the ceramic reaction tube inside the secondary coil.
This is just an illustration not the final design. Note that the windings ends are led out and turned twice round the tube itself
this is to take the high potential developed across the secondary winding to be taken to be along the tube of gas.

This coil has an inductance of 600 mH and about 180 turns with a 10000pF capacitor it will have a resonant frequency of 66KHz. At 2 Amp the emf will be 2.pi.fLI =1381600 V so a 1 T primary will need 7000 V at 360 A but with a Q of 100 and a primary of one turn the primary current drops to 3.6 A and the primary potential to 70 V. the input impedance is 19 Ohms.

9-1-2013 5:23

Estimated Number of Turns 20000
Desired Frequency (Hz)50
diameter of former in meters 60E-3
length of former in meters 60E-3
diameter of wire in mm 0.150
Inductance 416.938738
Number of Turns 13601.0742
Turns per layer 400
Number of Layers 34.0026855
Diameter of coil 0.07020080
Length of Wire 2751.09264 Meters
Mass of Winding 0.43462542 Kg
Resistance of Coil 25813.1993 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 416.938738 Henry
Capacitance of Multilayer Coil 0.2434717e-1 Microfarads
Self resonant frequency 49.9527926 Hz
Number of Turns is 13601.0742
Dynamic impedance 2.08219577e8
Q= 5.06955741
End of calculation
 

13-1-2013 6:42 pm

I estimate that the power output could rise to 6W.

14-1-2013 9:55 pm

diameter of wire in mm 5
Diameter Of Lumen mm 3
Thickness of Insulation mm 0.01
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 969
Turns per layer 11.9521912
Number of Layers 81.073
Diameter of coil 0.87397292
Length of Wire 810.880641 Meters
Resistance of Coil 10.7012477 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 105.72956 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.71762937e-2 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance 92185639.7
Resonant frequency is 47.2709393
Q 2935.04273
Winding Mass 91.1134803 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 2.83625636
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.26735142
Peak Ampere Turns 259.063528
Plasma Current 259.063528
Plasma Current Density 25906352.8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 15620933.2 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.54635054 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

14-1-2013 10:15

diameter of wire in mm 0.150
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 22784
Turns per layer 400
Number of Layers 56.96
Diameter of coil 0.077088
Length of Wire 4599.36704 Meters
Resistance of Coil 43163.1386 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 2009.79248 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.40704398e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0
dynamic impedance 1143923.18
Resonant frequency is 17.5932281
Q 5.14804012
Winding Mass 0.72675212 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 1.05559368
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.31654071e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 721.206361
Plasma Current 721.206361
Plasma Current Density 72120636.1 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.21063583e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 30.8918654 Watt
1 exit 2 loop
 

14-01-2013 11:04

This is the RF version that generated 2KW.

diameter of wire in mm 4
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 1
diameter of former in mm 30
length of former in mm 90
number of turns 15
Turns per layer 15
Number of Layers 1
Diameter of coil 0.042
Length of Wire 1.41397167 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0.18660282e-1 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 0.22214621e-5 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.12513649e-4 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 700E-12
dynamic impedance 167081.177
Resonant frequency is 3999684.77
Q 2992.29679
Winding Mass 0.15887897 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.045
Velocity 359971.629
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 150.387353
Peak Ampere Turns 2255.81029
Plasma Current 2255.81029
Plasma Current Density 1.50387353e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.1844032e9 Pa
Power lost through resistance 301.448262 Watt
1 exit 2 loop
 

14-1-2013 11:55 pm


diameter of wire in mm 10
Diameter Of Lumen mm 5
Thickness of Insulation mm 0.1
diameter of former in mm 101
length of former in mm 100
number of turns 70
Turns per layer 9.80392157
Number of Layers 7.14
Diameter of coil 0.246656
Length of Wire 33.6888761 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0.09484680 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 0.74437494e-2 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.29814655e-3 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 457E-6
dynamic impedance 171.732516
Resonant frequency is 86.2755422
Q 42.5515029
Winding Mass 17.7440808 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.05
Velocity 8.62755422
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 2033.54325
Peak Ampere Turns 142348.027
Plasma Current 142348.027
Plasma Current Density 8.54088164e9 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 9.65094825e11 Pa
Power lost through resistance 280157.025 Watt
1 exit 2 loop
 

15-1-2013 1:40 pm

diameter of wire in mm 10
Diameter Of Lumen mm 5
Thickness of Insulation mm 0.1
diameter of former in mm 100
length of former in mm 102
number of turns 70
Turns per layer 10.0
Number of Layers 7.0
Diameter of coil 0.2428
Length of Wire 34.1112809 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0.96036037e-1 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 0.71944343e-2 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.30188484e-3 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 400E-6
dynamic impedance 187.284613
Resonant frequency is 93.8022654
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 500E-6
dynamic impedance 149.827713
Resonant frequency is 83.8993031
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 700E-6
dynamic impedance 107.019814
Resonant frequency is 70.9078591
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 1000E-6
dynamic impedance 74.9138792
Resonant frequency is 59.3257751
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 1500E-6
dynamic impedance 49.9425912
Resonant frequency is 48.439295
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 1400E-6
dynamic impedance 53.5099184
Resonant frequency is 50.1394334
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q 23.6047839
Winding Mass 17.9665633 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.051
Velocity 5.11422221
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 3554.88454
Peak Ampere Turns 248841.918
Plasma Current 248841.918
Plasma Current Density 1.46377599e10 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 2.86490067e12 Pa
Power lost through resistance 866876.432 Watt
1 exit 2 loop

This reactor has a small reactor chamber of 6mm diameter and about 100 mm long but only the middle 1/3 takes part. The pressure on the plasma keeps it away from the walls. The fusion reaction may generate as much as 1E9 watt. This result is based on the power of 0.5 watt per cc per kPa in Wikipedia if I understood the formula. The ignition conditions are at a much lower power. I suggest the reaction is controlled by a shunt regulator based on a saturable reactance as triacs cannot take that amount of current. The heating is ohmic. The high voltage down the tube just strikes an arc thus ionising the gas.

16-1-2013 10:55

diameter of wire in mm 0.150
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 22874
Turns per layer 400
Number of Layers 57.185
Diameter of coil 0.0771555
Length of Wire 4685.52505 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 2066.15976 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.41466897e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 5E-9
dynamic impedance - Infinite
Resonant frequency is 16.2400749
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q infinite
Winding Mass 0.74036606 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 0.97440449
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.39835399e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 911.194916
Plasma Current 911.194916
Plasma Current Density 91119491.6 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.93248887e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.0 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

For a Superconducting winding.

diameter of wire in mm 10
Diameter Of Lumen mm 5
Thickness of Insulation mm 0.1
diameter of former in mm 100
length of former in mm 102
number of turns 70
Turns per layer 10.0
Number of Layers 7.0
Diameter of coil 0.2428
Length of Wire 34.1112809 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 0.71944343e-2 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.30188484e-3 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 1400E-6
dynamic impedance - Infinite
Resonant frequency is 50.1394334
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q infinite
Winding Mass 17.9665633 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.051
Velocity 5.11422221
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 3705.48472
Peak Ampere Turns 259383.93
Plasma Current 259383.93
Plasma Current Density 1.52578782e10 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 3.11278139e12 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.0 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

18-1-2013 1:55 pm


diameter of wire in mm 0.45
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 5251
Turns per layer 133.333333
Number of Layers 39.3825
Diameter of coil 0.9544425e-1
Length of Wire 1152.54402 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 86.3337951 Henry
Capacitance of Multilayer Coil 0.10200015e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance - Infinite
Resonant frequency is 51.5894109 Hz
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q infinite
Winding Mass 1.63903516 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.09536466
Peak Potential 8400.0 V
Peak Current 0.30010947 A
Peak Ampere Turns 1575.87481
Plasma Current 1575.87481 A
Plasma Current Density 1.57587481e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 5.78013329e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.0 Watt
1 exit 2 loop
 

Estimated power 285 KW for a superconducting winding

18-1-2013 4:55 pm

 

diameter of wire in mm 0.150
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 8150
Turns per layer 400
Number of Layers 20.375
Diameter of coil 0.0661125
Length of Wire 1623.23947 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 86.8329589 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.14365669e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance - Infinite
Resonant frequency is 50.4953833 Hz
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q infinite
Winding Mass 0.25649023 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.029723
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.30484903 A
Peak Ampere Turns 2484.51963
Plasma Current 2484.51963 A
Plasma Current Density 2.48451963e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.43674366e9 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.0 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

Estimated power over 300 KW with a superconducting winding.

21-01-2013 1:56pm

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 7900
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 22.3833333
Diameter of coil 0.67610333e-1
Length of Wire 1578.11437 Meters
Resistance of Coil 0 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 90.4464723 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.13966312e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance - Infinite
Resonant frequency is 49.5630184
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q infinite
Winding Mass 0.32028901 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 2.9737811
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.29817534
Peak Ampere Turns 2355.58515
Plasma Current 2355.58515
Plasma Current Density 2.35558515e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.29149296e9 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.0 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

23-01-2013 10:43 am

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 22000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 62.3333333
Diameter of coil 0.81193333e-1
Length of Wire 4560.20834 Meters
Resistance of Coil 33318.4131 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 2142.3547 Henry
Capacitance of Multilayer Coil 0.40357844e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance 458110.641
Resonant frequency is 9.176515
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q 3.70802826
Winding Mass 0.9255252 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 0.5505909
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.53549561e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 1178.09035
Plasma Current 1178.09035
Plasma Current Density 1.17809035e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 3.23036517e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 68.2445706 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

To estimate power

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 22000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 62.3333333
Diameter of coil 0.81193333e-1
Length of Wire 4560.20834 Meters
Resistance of Coil 33318.4131 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 2142.3547 Henry
Capacitance of Multilayer Coil 0.40357844e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance 458110.641
Resonant frequency is 9.176515
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q 3.70802826
Winding Mass 0.9255252 Kg
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 0.5505909
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.53549561e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 1178.09035
Plasma Current 1178.09035
Plasma Current Density 1.17809035e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 3.23036517e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 68.2445706 Watt
Power Generated 5.90206918e10 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

That is using Deuterium as a fuel. With Hydrogen the power will be much less. But during the reaction more deuterium is created until completion with helium as the final product.

02-02-2013 - 20:56

I have now built the regulator. It consists of a Triac BTA26. Diac and 22-turn 10K pot. The two anodes are connected across the shunt coil and the gate is connected through the diac to the sense coil. The pot controls the regulation voltage and so the power.

 


Shunt Regulator.

 

3-02-2013 5:56 pm

Here I am working out the settings.

 

Here is another calculation of the coil unit:

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 10000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 28.3333333
Diameter of coil 0.69633333e-1
Length of Wire 2006.19845 Meters
Resistance of Coil 14657.9594 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 185.78883 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.17754856e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0
dynamic impedance 713886.095
Resonant frequency is 87.6139844
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6
dynamic impedance 107638.406
Resonant frequency is 34.0206493
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.01E-6
dynamic impedance 456674.857
Resonant frequency is 70.0749054
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.047E-6
dynamic impedance 195737.366
Resonant frequency is 45.8770876
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.02E-6
dynamic impedance 335716.945
Resonant frequency is 60.0821688
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.015E-6
dynamic impedance 386963.842
Resonant frequency is 64.5051163
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.05E-6
dynamic impedance 187070.65
Resonant frequency is 44.8499329
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.047E-6
dynamic impedance 195737.366
Resonant frequency is 45.8770876
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.04E-6
dynamic impedance 219461.113
Resonant frequency is 48.5777905
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.03E-6
dynamic impedance 265416.881
Resonant frequency is 53.422381
1 for exit 2 for loop 2
capacitance of external capacitor 0.035E-6
dynamic impedance 240261.199
Resonant frequency is 50.8277388
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q 4.04860179
Winding Mass 0.40717158 Kg
Rms Potential 5000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.04966433
Peak Potential 7000.0
Peak Current 0.94591782e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 945.917823
Plasma Current 945.917823
Plasma Current Density 94591782.3 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 2.08257784e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 93.6811679 Watt
Power Generated 2.45303496e10 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 3000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.04966433
Peak Potential 4200.0
Peak Current 0.56755069e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 567.550694
Plasma Current 567.550694
Plasma Current Density 56755069.4 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 74972802.1 Pa
Power lost through resistance 33.7252204 Watt
Power Generated 3.17914053e9 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 2000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.04966433
Peak Potential 2800.0
Peak Current 0.37836713e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 378.367129
Plasma Current 378.367129
Plasma Current Density 37836712.9 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 33321245.4 Pa
Power lost through resistance 14.9889869 Watt
Power Generated 6.27981161e8 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 1000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.04966433
Peak Potential 1400.0
Peak Current 0.18918356e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 189.183565
Plasma Current 189.183565
Plasma Current Density 18918356.5 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 8330311.35 Pa
Power lost through resistance 3.74724671 Watt
Power Generated 39249762.5 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 500
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.04966433
Peak Potential 700.0
Peak Current 0.94591782e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 94.5917823
Plasma Current 94.5917823
Plasma Current Density 9459178.23 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 2082577.84 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.93681168 Watt
Power Generated 2453345.15 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 200
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.04966433
Peak Potential 280.0
Peak Current 0.37836713e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 37.8367129
Plasma Current 37.8367129
Plasma Current Density 3783671.29 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 333212.454 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.14988987 Watt
Power Generated 62847.7555 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1

03-02-2013 8:01 pm

The sense coil is about 7000 T to generate 70 volt from the reactor coil of 10,000T generating 100 v. The shunt coil needs to be about 100 T to send 5 A through the Triac to quench the reaction. The regulator needs to be set to regulate at about 100 volt.

A 10A, 250 V switch could be put across the shunt coil to cut off the power.

04-02-2013 7:52

I have bought a small mains transformer with a 18 volt winding to connect between the regulator and the sense coil with the 18 volt winding connecting to the sense coil. This will limit the power generated to a lower level. The sense coil remains at 33 T. The shunt coil remains at 25 T to send 20 amp through the triac to quench the reaction.

4-2-2013 11:40

I have now connected the miniature mains transformer.

Regulator, now with transformer to keep control of the power generated

I might put a rotary pot in so it is easier to set. A multi-turn pot with locking dial would be best but these are expensive.

05-02-2013 8:25 pm

I have now put a rotary single turn 10 K pot as the control knob.

Regulator with rotary pot added.

8-2-2013 18:38

New calculation for 50 Hz

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
Diameter Of Lumen mm 0
Thickness of Insulation mm 0
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 9750
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 27.625
Diameter of coil 0.0693925
Length of Wire 1934.37978 Meters
Resistance of Coil 14133.2281 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 170.05514 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.17119261e-1 microfarads
capacitance of external capacitor 0.04E-6
dynamic impedance 210652.111
Resonant frequency is 51.0570406
1 for exit 2 for loop 1
Q 3.86066594
Winding Mass 0.39259549 Kg
Rms Potential 100
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.06342244
Peak Potential 140.0
Peak Current 0.20379377e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 19.8698921
Plasma Current 19.8698921
Plasma Current Density 1986989.21 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 91893.6377 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.41927128e-1 Watt
Power Generated 4789.91501 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
 

10-2-2013 1:15 am

I have now assembled the pre-amplifier for the start-up exciter and the regulator now has a quench switch to stop the reaction.

Regulator (left) with off switch and pre-amplifier for start-up exciter.

For the time being I will be working with reduced pressure air as hydrogen is expensive and dangerous.

11-02-2013 23:32

I have built the exciter amplifier that drives the primary coil to the reactor.

The amplifier on top is a simple pre-amp with a gain of 50 with a Darlington pair power amplifier as an emitter follower. The driver oscillator is a commercial product.

19-02-2013 21:24

New reactor coil calculation for coil using self capacitance only.

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 15000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 42.5
Diameter of coil 0.07445
Length of Wire 3031.45544 Meters
Resistance of Coil 22148.8312 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 644.078152 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.26828381e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 1083910.18
Resonant frequency is 38.2802969
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 12500
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 35.4166667
Diameter of coil 0.72041667e-1
Length of Wire 2514.20797 Meters
Resistance of Coil 18369.6475 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 367.371461 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.22250741e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 898793.913
Resonant frequency is 55.6566251
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 12000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 34.0
Diameter of coil 0.07156
Length of Wire 2441.0696 Meters
Resistance of Coil 17835.274 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 328.26337 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.21603466e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 851960.004
Resonant frequency is 59.7542614
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 12700
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 35.9833333
Diameter of coil 0.72234333e-1
Length of Wire 2514.20797 Meters
Resistance of Coil 18369.6475 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 379.221395 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.22250741e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 927785.409
Resonant frequency is 54.7801428
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 13000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 36.8333333
Diameter of coil 0.72523333e-1
Length of Wire 2587.53488 Meters
Resistance of Coil 18905.3985 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 409.506843 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.22899684e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 945901.346
Resonant frequency is 51.9632717
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 14000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 39.6666667
Diameter of coil 0.73486667e-1
Length of Wire 2808.64678 Meters
Resistance of Coil 20520.9163 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 517.668112 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.24856524e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 1014879.01
Resonant frequency is 44.3604462
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 13500
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 38.25
Diameter of coil 0.073005
Length of Wire 2734.75428 Meters
Resistance of Coil 19981.0329 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 468.037994 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.24202575e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 967835.6
Resonant frequency is 47.2792376
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 13200
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 37.4
Diameter of coil 0.072716
Length of Wire 2661.05032 Meters
Resistance of Coil 19442.527 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 434.803355 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.23550295e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 949606.806
Resonant frequency is 49.7275645
1 for exit 2 for new turns 2
number of turns 13100
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 37.1166667
Diameter of coil 0.72619667e-1
Length of Wire 2661.05032 Meters
Resistance of Coil 19442.527 Ohms
Inductance of Multilayer Coil 428.240379 Henry
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.23550295e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 935273.324
Resonant frequency is 50.1071642
1 for exit 2 for new turns 1
Q 6.93574182
Winding Mass 0.5400782 Kg
Rms Potential 6000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 8400.0
Peak Current 0.54442624e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 713.198369
Plasma Current 713.198369
Plasma Current Density 71319836.9 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.18390024e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 41.1625968 Watt
Power Generated 7.92742037e9 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 3000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 4200.0
Peak Current 0.27221312e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 356.599184
Plasma Current 356.599184
Plasma Current Density 35659918.4 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 29597505.9 Pa
Power lost through resistance 10.2906492 Watt
Power Generated 4.95467113e8 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 2000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 2800.0
Peak Current 0.18147541e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 237.73279
Plasma Current 237.73279
Plasma Current Density 23773279.0 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 13154447.1 Pa
Power lost through resistance 4.57362187 Watt
Power Generated 97871146.5 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 1000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 1400.0
Peak Current 0.90737706e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 118.866395
Plasma Current 118.866395
Plasma Current Density 11886639.5 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 3288611.77 Pa
Power lost through resistance 1.14340547 Watt
Power Generated 6117317.73 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 500
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 700.0
Peak Current 0.45368853e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 59.4331974
Plasma Current 59.4331974
Plasma Current Density 5943319.74 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 822152.942 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.28585137 Watt
Power Generated 382425.135 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 500
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 700.0
Peak Current 0.45368853e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 59.4331974
Plasma Current 59.4331974
Plasma Current Density 5943319.74 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 822152.942 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.28585137 Watt
Power Generated 382425.135 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 200
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 280.0
Peak Current 0.18147541e-2
Peak Ampere Turns 23.773279
Plasma Current 23.773279
Plasma Current Density 2377327.9 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 131544.471 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.45736219e-1 Watt
Power Generated 9806.71716 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 100
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 140.0
Peak Current 0.90737706e-3
Peak Ampere Turns 11.8866395
Plasma Current 11.8866395
Plasma Current Density 1188663.95 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 32886.1177 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.11434055e-1 Watt
Power Generated 616.639905 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 50
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 70.0
Peak Current 0.45368853e-3
Peak Ampere Turns 5.94331974
Plasma Current 5.94331974
Plasma Current Density 594331.974 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 8221.52942 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.28585137e-2 Watt
Power Generated 39.4770493 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 2
Rms Potential 20
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.00642985
Peak Potential 28.0
Peak Current 0.18147541e-3
Peak Ampere Turns 2.3773279
Plasma Current 2.3773279
Plasma Current Density 237732.79 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1315.44471 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.45736219e-3 Watt
Power Generated 1.18660054 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
1 exit 2 again 1

This unit has no external capacitor

20-02-2013 10:58

I have now received a vacuum pump. I think it is too weak but it is probably better than a hand pump.

22-02-2013 19:01

I took delivery of the coil former I had made.

Reactor Coil Former

Inner Reactor Coil Former

22-02-2013 21:41

Wound reactor coil

 

 

 

Showing Emergency Spark gap regulator (1cm gap)

22-02-2013 23:07

 

23-02-2013 11:22

Outer Coil showing more details.

23-02-2013 11:51

Measurement shows that the inductance of the inner reactor coil is 7.6 H. This will have a resonant frequency of about 180Hz with a capacitor of 0.1 mfd.

23-02-2013 12:12

Reactor coil calculation with measured value of inductance.

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 13000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 36.8333333
Diameter of coil 0.72523333e-1
Length of Wire 2587.53488 Meters
Resistance of Coil 18905.3985 Ohms
Capacitance of Mutilayer Coil 0.22899684e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 3270.97324
Resonant frequency is 164.649203
1 for exit 2 for new turns 1
Q 0.41595426
Winding Mass 0.52515775 Kg
Rms Potential 10000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 9.87895217
Peak Potential 14000.0
Peak Current 0.52298951
Peak Ampere Turns 6798.86358
Plasma Current 6798.86358
Plasma Current Density 6.79886358e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 1.07588804e10 Pa
Power lost through resistance 3693.54802 Watt
Power Generated 6.54688732e13 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
1 exit 2 again 1

Direct measurement of coil resistance shows that it is 10 MΏ The calculation above said 18KΏ

This may be due to the resistance at the junction between the winding and the connecting leads.

I have re-soldered and the resistance is the same.

23-02-12:24

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 13000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 36.8333333
Diameter of coil 0.72523333e-1
Length of Wire 2587.53488 Meters
Resistance of Coil 18905.3985 Ohms (Measured value 10MΏ)
External Capacitance 0.1 mfd
dynamic impedance 7.6
Resonant frequency is 182.53032
1 for exit 2 for new turns 1
Q 0.87177979e-3
Winding Mass 0.52515775 Kg
Rms Potential 10000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 10.9518192
Peak Potential 14000.0
Peak Current 0.0014
Peak Ampere Turns 18.2
Plasma Current 18.2
Plasma Current Density 1820000.0 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 77096.9506 Pa
Power lost through resistance 14.0 Watt
Power Generated 3373.43396 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
1 exit 2 again 1

This calculation is with real values of inductance, resistance and likely winding current.

23-02-13:38

Test 1 ,

Experimental set up for transformer test

output potential 19.9 v ac across winding, input potential 0.01 v. Input current <10 mA AC. Voltage ratio: 1990, output voltage from output winding 0.46 V AC, Frequency of resonance 180 Hz.

23-02-2013 15:18

I cleaned the connections and re-soldered the winding and the coil resistance dropped to 2KΏ.

Here is the new calculation

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 13000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 36.8333333
Diameter of coil 0.72523333e-1
Length of Wire 2587.53488 Meters
Resistance of Coil 2000 Ohms
Capacitance of Multilayer Coil 0.22899684e-1 microfarads
dynamic impedance 38000
Resonant frequency is 182.53032
1 for exit 2 for new turns 1
Q 4.35889894
Winding Mass 0.52515775 Kg
Rms Potential 10000
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 10.9518192
Peak Potential 14000.0
Peak Current 1.30623848
Peak Ampere Turns 16981.1002
Plasma Current 16981.1002
Plasma Current Density 1.69811002e9 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 6.71160015e10 Pa
Power lost through resistance 2437.5128 Watt
Power Generated 2.54772677e15 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
1 exit 2 again 1

Here I am using the measured value of inductance and resistance and the external capacitor of 0.1 MFD.

23-02-2013 23:16

The exciter amplifier does not work. It was a kit and so I probably made a mistake. I will ask another person.

24-02-2013 15:28

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
diameter of former in mm 60
length of former in mm 60
number of turns 13000
Turns per layer 352.941176
Number of Layers 36.8333333
Diameter of coil 0.72523333e-1
Length of Wire 2727.04675 Meters
resistance of winding 2018.06811
Inductance of winding by simple formula 10.0113891
Inductance by measurement 7.6
1 for exit 2 for new turns 1
capacitance of external capacitor 1E-6
dynamic impedance 3765.97794
Resonant frequency is 57.7211553
1 for exit 2 for loop for another capacitance 2
capacitance of external capacitor 1.5E-6
dynamic impedance 2510.65196
Resonant frequency is 47.1291259
1 for exit 2 for loop for another capacitance 2
capacitance of external capacitor 1.3E-6
dynamic impedance 2896.90611
Resonant frequency is 50.6248021
1 for exit 2 for loop for another capacitance 1
Q 1.19811719
Winding Mass 0.55347263 Kg
Rms Potential 400
Half Wavelength 0.03
Velocity 3.03748813
Peak Potential 560.0
Peak Current 0.12624127
Peak Ampere Turns 1641.13654
Plasma Current 1641.13654
Plasma Current Density 1.64113654e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Additional Pressure of Plasma 6.26879196e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 22.9726191 Watt
Power Generated 2.22263635e11 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
1 exit 2 again 1

This uses a 1.3 MFD , 500 V capacitor.

The power will be lower as the gas I want to use is hydrogen and the reaction is with the deuterium in the gas.

26-02-2013 16:09

Here I use more turns and a smaller capacitor to get 50 Hz resonator. The inductance is calculated by a published formula for multilayer coil in Wikipedia and the capacitor is a 0.1E-6uF commercial capacitor. I cannot wind the 29000T coil as I have already wound the 13000T coil and I have run out of wire and I would have to get a new former made.

 

The result is the same power out at 500 v (RMS) across the winding but with a lower winding current and therefore much lower copper loss for the power.

 

Here is the calculation print out.

 

diameter of wire in mm 0.170

diameter of former in mm 60

length of former in mm 60

number of turns 30000

Turns per layer 352.941176

Number of Layers 85.0

Diameter of coil 0.0889

Length of Wire 7133.00465 Meters

resistance of winding 5278.56342

total inductance by complex formula 106.305014

1 for exit 2 for new turns 1

capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6

dynamic impedance 201390.048

Resonant frequency is 48.8050695

1 for exit 2 for another turns value 2

number of turns 28000

Turns per layer 352.941176

Number of Layers 79.3333333

Diameter of coil 0.86973333e-1

Length of Wire 6544.85897 Meters

resistance of winding 4843.32408

total inductance by complex formula 92.6377114

1 for exit 2 for new turns 1

capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6

dynamic impedance 191268.868

Resonant frequency is 52.2814835

1 for exit 2 for another turns value 2

number of turns 29000

Turns per layer 352.941176

Number of Layers 82.1666667

Diameter of coil 0.87936667e-1

Length of Wire 6837.23504 Meters

resistance of winding 5059.68811

total inductance by complex formula 99.3500352

1 for exit 2 for new turns 1

capacitance of external capacitor 0.1E-6

dynamic impedance 196356.046

Resonant frequency is 50.4844696

1 for exit 2 for another turns value 1

Q 6.2296015

Winding Mass 1.38766321 Kg

Rms Potential 10000

Half Wavelength 0.03

Velocity 3.02906818

Peak Potential 14000.0

Peak Current 0.38272773

Peak Ampere Turns 11099.1042

Plasma Current 11099.1042

Plasma Current Density 1.10991042e9 Amp per meter^2, near centre

Additional Pressure of Plasma 2.86728115e10 Pa

Power lost through resistance 529.389802 Watt

Power Generated 4.6498748e14 Watt

1 exit 2 loop 2

Rms Potential 500

Half Wavelength 0.03

Velocity 3.02906818

Peak Potential 700.0

Peak Current 0.19136387e-1

Peak Ampere Turns 554.955209

Plasma Current 554.955209

Plasma Current Density 55495520.9 Amp per meter^2, near centre

Additional Pressure of Plasma 71682028.9 Pa

Power lost through resistance 1.3234745 Watt

Power Generated 2.90617175e9 Watt

1 exit 2 loop 1

1 exit 2 again 1

 

The power is for deuterium but for natural hydrogen the power is multiplied by the square of the fractional content of deuterium in the gas.

 

The frequency is adjustable by a high voltage variable capacitor.

27-02-2013 14:41

I have now installed the ceramic reactor tube. These only cost one penny each.

Reactor with ceramic chamber installed.

27-02-2013 17:29

Waveform of Exciter output at 500 Hz without power amplifier on PC Oscilloscope, the meter read 2.89 V RMS.

For the power amplifier I have purchased a 100 amp Mosfet. It will operate at 30 amp. With the above as its driver. The power source will be a 12V motorcycle battery. If I feed it with square waveform it will operate as a switch.

28-02-2013 21:52

The primary has an inductance of 111uH when a current of 30 A at 50 Hz is sent through it will present a 1 volt back EMF and 13000 volts will develop across the reactor coil and since there are 20 T in the primary 600AT are generated so the plasma current is 600 A.

I have finished the driver for the power amplifier. It develops 5 volt square waves (adjustable) see below:

I have made it DC-restored so the MOSFET will switch on at 4 volt and so produce pulses of 30 am current.

I think a 6 volt Motor Cycle battery is better. It needs a resistor to limit the current to 30 A. So if 1 volt develops across the terminals the drop is 5 volt that makes the resistor 0.17 Ohm 150 watt.

I have now soldered the wire ends of the windings to solder tag strips.

Reactor Coil with wires fixed to tags and with ceramic reaction chamber inserted.

01-03-2013 10:13

The input voltage of 1 volt means that 13000/20 volt at the reactor coil (650V) so 2 volt gives 1300V so the spark gap limiter should be 6 mm (from 33KV/cm. The terminals of the tag board have 6 mm between them so that is the limiter. This prevents an explosion.

(Corrected)

01-03-2013 19:50

I have just tried a circuit breaker on a battery of 3 volt that delivers about 4A through the primary and the output from the secondary according to the multimeter set on "max" was 4.5 V (AC). However I just touched the battery terminals on the primary and then broke the connection and looked at the secondary potential generated.

07/03/2013 0:24

I built another ignition circuit and it did not work. I made the mistake of not loading the source.

However the wave form is better.

I then tidied up the old circuit.

Square wave output from ignition circuit. It needs DC restore.

Improved construction.

07/03/2013 21:47

I found the transistor had failed and so I tried a mosfet but I could not install this surface mounted device.

I removed the output transistor altogether and tested the pre-amplifier with a sine wave.

Sine wave output from preamplifier

08/03/2013 19:59

The transistor failed because of too much current so I took it out. I have requested a replacement.

I am considering putting a mains transformer between the output and the input to the primary to match the impedances.  The output waves will not be square because of the poor frequency response so I will use sinusoids.

09/03/2013 11:34

Here I have put a diode for dc restoration.

I have to buy the power transistor for the output stage.

12/03/2013 17:54

Some images of reactor and ignition circuit.

14/03/2013 13:44

Here I have fitted a lightning machine to ionise the gas and re-arranged the winding ends so they do not curl round the reaction tube. The lightning machine is connected at each end of the reaction tube so the field is along the chamber and capacity coupled.

15/03/2013 14:09

I have now fitted the capacitor board.

Capacitor Board Fitted. The 1.5uF 2000V capacitor is in series with the parallel combination of 10uF, 820nF, 680nF and 220nF making 11.72uF,

 

This makes a total capacitance of 1.329uF so the circuit will resonate at 49.78 Hz

15/03/2013 19:18

I tested the response of the tuned circuit to the output of a small mains transformer connected to the output of the ignition circuit at 50 Hz sine waves from the signal generator. The battery was 4.5V with the pre-amplifier rail potential of 3 volt.

Both beams are on 20mV/division, the upper is the trace from the primary and the lower is the response from the tuned circuit (across the winding).

16/03/2013 18:08

Coil at resonance of 50 Hz

 

Shunt Regulator

Here the reactor coil is driven at 50 Hz with a 1 volt square wave and the sense coil signal is received at the diac as the trace shows below at 50mV/div. Since the diac breakdown voltage is 30 volt the turn on value of the triac is reached when the sense coil output is 600 times higher so the reactor coil cut off will be 600 volt.

20/03/2013 13:26

Triac response to sense coil. The triac was biased with a 3 volt battery and 100 ohm resistor

I found the shunt regulator did not work. This is because the regulator shunts a secondary winding. I attempted to shunt the reactor coil and the 10K lin Pot went open circuit. This is where I set the power level.

I am to use impedance transformers to connect the new regulator to the reactor with the shunt across the reactor coil and the output of the sense coil. I have been doing measurements. 

I now have to rebuild the regulator - in progress.

I have changed from a battery powered ignition circuit to a commercial AC psu. It is 12 V 3 A so I have purchased a 12:1 current transformer so I can supply 36 amp to the primary at 1 volt at 50 Hz.

23/03/2013 11:54

I found that I did not need this current transformer as I could use the 300T coil as the exciter coil. So I bought a commercial AC power supply 12 V at 3 amp. I measured the dynamic impedance of this coil at 50 Hz and found it was 20 Ohm. So it would draw 0.5 A from the PSU.

I rebuilt the regulator after realising I only needed one coil on the outside that serves as all the other coils. The exciter coil may be switched over to supply power to an external load on ignition. And by connecting the reactor coil through a step down transformer to the regulator it then can supply the triac gate through a potentiometer and also across the triac as the shunt.

I tested this:

Response to regulator

The upper trace is the potential of the reactor coil (100 V per division) and the lower trace is the potential across the triac A1 and A2 terminals below the gate threshold.

Response to regulator

The upper trace is the potential across the reactor coil (100 V/division) and the lower trace is the potential across the triac A1 and A2 when the gate is above the threshold.

The time base is on 10 ms/division.

23/03/2013 15:53

I found after measuring the potential across the reactor coil that it had dropped from 300V to 60 V and its resistance had fallen from 2K to 900 Ohms. I suppose this means that half the coil had shorted. I will have to wind another.

 

It is possible that a surge of power had caused the failure but I was running it without the oscilloscope connected.

 

I will now have to start again.

23/03/2013 16:09

I found that the shunt regulator had cut in due to it's setting.

23/03/2013 21:21

I had a lot of problems and improved the vacuum. I also rebuilt the regulator twice.

The regulator needs a diac and I could only find 30 volt units so I improvised with two back to back 4.7v Zenner diodes. With these in circuit between the gate and the pot tap the gate starts triggering the diode at 5 volt. However this does not turn on the shunt across A1 and A2.

 

Above gate potential at gate. Below potential at the pot tap. The back to back Zenners are in between.

 

Above is the reactor coil trace below is the output of the transformer.

24/03/2013 10:08

Regulator with two terminals

 

24/03/2013 22:54

Having realised that I could drive the reactor coil directly with a high impedance 250 V AC source I tried this out. I connected a min mains transformer across the 12 v output of the AC PSU and fed the 250 V winding to across the reactor coil. The 9 volt primary of this transformer was connected to the PSU.

This is directly across reactor coil

The calculated current in the reactor coil is 78mA and so the AT are 1020. So once the gas in the reaction chamber is ionised the plasma current will rise to 1020 Amp.

31/03/2013 17:38

I found the potential picked up by the exciter coil with the above was less that 1 volt. This contradicts the law of reciprocity  in electromagnetic induction.

I found and repaired a high potential RF generator (20 KV, 60 KHz) and put a wire from the hot end alongside the reaction chamber to ionise the low pressure gas inside.

I am having difficulty with the vacuum so I have to tackle this next. I found I could get 23" vacuum but when sealed it the pressure rose rapidly.

01/04/2013 17:10

I did another run without the vacuum and found that there was no stink of nitric oxide. The sense coil gave a potential of 0.88 V AC when 12 V AC was applied to the exciter coil. I wired an S-meter with a diode and resistor so it read 2.5 when connected to the sense coil. This is now the indicator.

The lack of odour indicated that the vacuum was needed and that indicates that plasma formed in the tube when the vacuum was applied.

2/04/2013 10:30

I did the experiment of applying 12 V AC to the exciter coil and measured the resonance coil output and the sense coil output, now used as an indicator. The sense coil is now connected to a S-meter through a diode and resistor. The resistor was found by trial so it gave a reading of 2 under these test conditions. The resonance coil output was about 200 V AC and the sense coil output was about 200 mV AC

Here is the oscilloscope trace:

Oscilloscope trace showing resonance coil output and sense coil output

02/04/2013 22:01

I bought some gas tape, then I discovered how my kit was sabotaged, the screw in the gas tap had been loosened. I got a better vacuum like that. Then I did a run. I found the GM tube was flashing red and yellow indicating a dangerous level of radioactivity. This may have been connected with the high voltage, high frequency output of the ionisation wire.

The vacuum was better at 23" and it was retained longer when I isolated the chamber.

Here is an image of the flashing GM tube.

Reactor 1 showing GM tube active at over 7.5 Sv/h.

Sinusoid from resonance coil with 12 V AC on the exciter coil. It looks slightly high amplitude than before

15/04/2013 21:32

I rebuilt the regulator because the triac takes 700 volt but I am worried about the 10K pot.

I have made it neater and removed the transformer. The triac and the pot are connected across the reactor coil to control the reaction.

04/05/2013 7:25

Reactor 2

05/05/2013 16:08

Start of coil winding

Midway through coil wind

End of coil wind

I now need some solder tags to complete the coil and measure the inductance and resistance.

I now have the solder tags and I have completed the winding, it was 22064T of 0.170 mm wire. Measured inductance: 18.37H winding resistance: 1.95K ohm.

I calculate the capacitor to tune to 50Hz to be 0.55155uF:

diameter of wire in mm 0.170
diameter of former in mm 20
length of former in mm 54
number of turns 22064
Turns per layer 317.647059
Number of Layers 69.4607407
Diameter of coil 43.6166519 mm
Length of Wire 2240.22533 Meters
resistance of winding 1658.10973 Ohm
Inductance of winding by simple formula 3.55905304
new turns 1=y 2=n n
Inductance by measurement 18.37
Resonant Frequency Hz 50
capacitance by resonance formula 0.5515579 uF
Capacitance 0.5515579 uF
correct ? 1=n 2=y 2
Dynamic impedance 20086.5234
Resonant frequency is 50.0
1 for exit 2 for loop for another capacitance 1
Q 3.48053298
Winding Mass 0.45458692 Kg
Rms Potential 100
Half Wavelength 0.027
Velocity 2.7
Peak Potential 140.0
Peak Current 0.23315534e-1
Rms Current 0.16653953e-1
Peak Ampere Turns 514.433933
Plasma Current 514.433933
Plasma Current Density 57159325.9 Amp per meter^2, near centre
Ion Pressure of Plasma 2.93262153e8 Pa
Power lost through resistance 0.64383703 Watt
Power Generated if Deuterium 4.37700372e10 Watt
Power Generated by natural hydrogen 1050.48089 Watt
1 exit 2 loop 1
1 exit 2 again 1

Circuit for capacitor board. All 680V audio grade polypropylene capacitors except the 15n which is 2000 v polypropylene.

I think I made a mistake here, as the measured capacitance is 0.556 without the 15nF capacitor.

I mounted the outer winding former on the inner winding former and I am expecting the winding wire tomorrow. This is 0.9mm wire.

End of Outer Coil Wind

End of Coil Wind

 

Start of Outer Coil Wind

 

Finished Winding on table

Outer coil has inductance of 118.4mH and 1165T resistance 10.4 ohm

I built the capacitor board and the capacitance was 0.556 uF as shown below.

Capacitor board

09/05/2013 01:35

09/05/2013 02:27

09/05/2013 12:26

 

I did a test run with this setup. I turned on the ionisation wire and obtained a 12 volt output on the outer winding at 32 KHz

This is with no exciter and the ionisation wire off

This is with the ionisation wire energised but the exciter off . The reaction chamber was open to the air.

This is with the ioniser on and the exciter on.

The dosimeter read 7.2 micro Sv/Hr for both above test runs.

I then measured the power taken by the exciter alone with a commercial watt meter. It was 6Watt with the ioniser wire off and with no vacuum. When I energised the ioniser wire the power taken by the exciter fell to 5.1 W indicating that 0.8W was being generated by direct conversion. The vacuum was 23" but letting the vacuum down to air only made a small amount of difference with more power taken by the exciter. The switch on the regulator increased the power taken to 6 watt as did the regulator control knob.

The dosiometer read 0 when the ioniser wire was not energised and rose to 7.2 micro Sv/hr when the wire was energised.

09/05/2013 20:23

New regulator.

This has the same circuit as the previous one except that a high voltage transformer connects between the resonance coil and the regulator with the high potential side connected to the resonance coil.

it is 119:6000 ratio.

11/05/2013 08:

13/05/2013 09:24

Outer Coil Former for reactor 2 version 2

The inner coil has 22000 T 0.170mm solderable enamelled copper wire, the outer coil has 5Kg 0.9mm solderable enamelled copper wire. That is over 2000T.

18/05/2013 09:23

I have made a new regulator similar to the old one but neater.

I am waiting for winding wire to complete reactor 2 version 2.

18/05/2013 13:28

New Regulator and capacitor board. The capacitance will need changing to tune the new inner coil winding, when it is wound, to 50 Hz.

Regulator and Capacitance board.

18/05/2013 15:12

I found that the ionisation wire alone when energised would trigger the alarm signal on the dosiometer

26/05/2013 7:48

I re-assembled the reactor 2 v 1 and did measurements. I found the input current to the exciter coil was 1.5 A at 4.08V (Peak to Peak)  AC and the current in the resonance coil was 300mA with the potential of 119 V (peak to Peak AC. Both at 50 Hz. The power source was a mans transformer (12 V AC)

When the corona wire was energised their was a smell of nitric oxide, or possibly ozone. I did see briefly the blue glow from the open tube of a plasma discharge.

 

No generation of power was observed.

 

There was no plasma current.

 

The reactor vessel was open to ambient air.

 

I noticed that in the two wires from the mains transformer my clamp current probe showed 1.5 a in one arm and 100 mA in the other. This is inexplicable according to my comprehension of circuit theory.

 

The current in both arms of the inside winding were the same.

 

The input power taken from the mains read on a commercial watt meter was around 5.1 W but varied a bit to 5.3 W.

 

I did not attempt to measure the phase relation of current and potential.

 

 

No ionisation wire air only shunt swithch off.jpg

No ionisation wire shunt regulator set below trigger level

 

regulator now set so the shunt operates.jpg

 

Regulator set to level where it triggers.

 

with corona wire energised.jpg

 

With corona wire energised

 

emergancy off switch operated.jpg

 

Emergency off switch operated. This switch would be better placed across the resonance winding.

 

Corona Wire only.jpg

 

Corona wire energised only.

 

experimental set up 26-5-2013 001.jpg

 

Experimental Setup

 

26/05/2013 10:22

I did some electrical measurements on reactor 1 v 1 as above.

The potential across the exciter coil was 4.08 V and the current 1.6A AC, 50 Hz powered by a 12 volt mains transformer. The potential across the inner, resonant winding was 119 V and the current as measured by a commercial current clamp was 300 mA.

I noted that the current in the two arms of the leads to the exciter winding were quite different. One gave 1.5 A, as expected but the other lead gave 200 mA. This is contrary to my circuit theory as I understand it.

The inner winding was symmetrical with current in both leads the same.

These values varied a little.

So the outer winding took 6.5 VA and the inner winding 35 VA.

The current sheets were: 1758 A for the outer winding of 1172T and the current sheet of the inner winding of 22000T was 6600 A.

My calculation then would indicate that once the gas in the reactor becomes conducting as a result of the corona wire the plasma current will be 6600 A.

This current in the ionised gas will repel the current in the winding and be forced toward the axis making an ionic pressure there. The current gives rise to Ohmic heating that starts the fusion reaction the rate is determined by the pressure and is proportional to the square of the pressure because it is a second order reaction.

 The transport of heat is not good so the heat is contained near the centre.

Previous experiments indicate that the plasma is at a temperature lower than ambient as measured by an infra red thermometer.

26/05/2013 22:02

I changed the clamp current meter for a series current meter and the results changed. This may have been due to the resistance of the current meter.

 

Exciter current measured by series current meter  360mA. Potential 4.08v p-p

Resonance winding current by series current meter 6.13mA dropping to 6.09mA with corona wire energised and vac of 22. Potential 119v p-p

 

I make the current sheet 134 A.

 

VA of exciter 1.4  and of the resonance coil 0.72 VA

 

When the corona wire was energised the resonance current dropped to 6.09 mA so the gas may have been loading the wire. Some plasma current may have been flowing.

26/05/2013 23:57

Resonance coil current 130 mA, potential 119 v p-p

Exciter current 100 mA

Exciter potential 14.4 v rms

 

So the current sheet is 2860 A however there is no plasma current even with the vacuum of 22 I need a higher vacuum or a higher potential corona wire.

I had a problem before with my crock clips falling off.

27/05/2013 00:09

Top, emergency stop. This is a switch connected across the resonance coil

Experimental set up

 

28/05/2013 17:58

I started upgrading the exciter coil on reactor 2 to 2245 T After winding the additional turns the resistance was 24.7 Ohm and the  inductance 474 mH

Start of additional turns

Finish

On test bench

28/05/2013 21:00

I will try a low pressure hydrogen in a quartz tube as I started that way.

The corona wire needs a return path. So I tested this idea with the corona wire at one end of a deuterium spectral tube and the earth connection at the other, both capacatively coupled to the gas in the tube. It works.

Deuterium tube capacatively connected to the gas in the tube.

http://youtu.be/vJ4jT2oLApI

29/05/2013 12:40

Test run. I could not ionise the air so no power generated.

http://youtu.be/G0ZM7GMrrpI

 

I tried to ionise the gas with two parallel wires from the energiser but when I connected the coil with the high voltage on there was a spark and the inner coil changed its inductance from about 18H to about 5H and the resistance rose from about 1.6K to about 1.9K

I cannot use that coil any more.

30/05/2013 21:33

When I examined the coil, I found no break in the conductor and no visible change had occurred. However I think the high voltage spark had shorted some turns invisibly. The coil and the plastic former has been scrapped. I expect a replacement with correct dimensions next week.

Calibration of the voltmeter.

I put a voltmeter across the resonance winding, made from a signal meter and series diode and resistor. I did a trial defelection with a  10K resistor and a 4 volt battery. I know that I expect about 200 volt across to I calculated the series resistance to obtain the correct deflection so the scale read in 100's volts and then calibrated it against a commercial meter. I adjusted the series resistor by adding 20M ohm resistors in parallel until the scale reading was similar to the digital readout of the calibrated meter.

Here is a photograph.

Calibrating the voltmeter

 

31/05/2013 23:17

Video showing the existence of plasma current in a lit deuterium spectral tube.

http://youtu.be/xAO3HSzsWaU

07/06/2013 15:28

I bought by mail order from the USA a plasma generator from the USA. It is reputed to be 20KV at 40KHz.

09/06/2013 19:18

I did some experiments with a deuterium spectral tube lit by a 30 KHz 4KV high voltage unit placed in a coil that resonated near that frequency. Here are two U-Tube video sequences that I uploaded.

c8Mtd6WcvIA experiment 14

In this experiment the deuterium spectral tube is lit by a 30KHz 4KV high voltage source while placed in a coil of wire of 19064 urns on a former 20 mm dia 58 mm long where is self resonant frequency was near 30 KHz.

The coil was wound with 0.170 mm wire and had a measured inductance of  4.72 H. Its resistance was 1.6Kohm

flzDXbSp7Dk experiment 13

This experiment is the same as 14 but it is not well focussed but it shows the potential across the coil.

The Geiger counter placed about 60 cm away read about 2.5 micro Sv/h closer it rose to 7.5 micro Sv/h

The power generated was lost in the winding so V^2/R = 10000/1.6K=6.25W The power taken by the exciter, as measured by a commercial power meter was 3.2 W so 3.05W of power was generated by nuclear fusion.

14/06/2013 21:48

This result is suspect now. This is because the power in and the power out were measured at different times. So far I have been unable to ionise the air inside the reaction chamber. However something is happening.

My ISP cut of my services because my carer did not pay the bill. My services have just been restored.

In the meantime I finished reactor 2 version 6 and today I posted it to my friend in Utrecht as he is better placed to test stuff.

Reactor 2 version 6 complete but untested

 

New inner coil at the end of the wind.

I was able to wind 20000 T of 0.170 mm solderable enamelled copper wire on the former.

Start of wind of inner coil

half way

End of wind

Finished coil without the terminal block

Inner coil now placed in the centre of outer coil

I generated no power. This is because I was unable to ionise the air in the reaction tube so no plasma current flowed and if it had the current would have been too small as the exciter potential was 12 V. I would think 50 - 100 volt would be better as the current in the inner winding would be higher. I briefly tried it with 250V 50 Hz AC and I was rewarded by a flash over near the capacitor. Neither coil was damaged.

I later separated the capacitor board and the regulator board, rewired the capacitor with the emphasis on neatness and took the dimmer switch off the regulator board. The regulator board has a changeover switch so that when the engine ignites then the switch sends the generated electricity to an external circuit.

I have now send the assembly to Utrecht for testing.

It weighed just over 7Kg.

04/07/2013

The reactor was damaged in transit. I have asked for compensation from the insurance.

Reactor 2 Construction

The high voltage unit arrived after I paid the customs duty and I am waiting to buy a power supply tomorrow.

The high voltage unit, 15-20Kv is insufficient to ionise the air at the vacuum I could reach but I found 50 Kv will.

11/07/2013 10:14

I purchased a needle valve for the hydrogen cycle. I works well with the 30" vacuum I can reach.

Needle valve

13/07/2013 00:43

I uploaded a video to u-tube where I demonstrate a glow discharge indicating the formation of ionised gas (plasma) in the reaction tube minus the coil. This renders the gas conducting and so once the windings are in place the alternating current in the exciter coil induces a current in the resonance coil that induces a current in the ionised gas in the reaction tube. This is the essential first stage.

 

http://youtu.be/0BTMx-Ogs5g

18/07/2013 11:01

The plastic angle pipes arrived. These are more suitable than copper pipes because of the electricity present.

Plastic tube elbows to connect to hydrogen blanket

21/07/2013 15:36

Experiments with Tesla coil intended to make plasma generator.

Basic Tesla Coil.

Another view with connections

Tertiary coil fitted for feedback to active component of amplifier

Now fitted.

Response of Tesla coil

Here Channel 1 is primary fed from a 12 volt mains transformer with a dimmer switch to limit current, channel 2 is the feedback winding

Here channel 1 is the primary and channel 2 is the tertiary there is no ferrite core

In this test the primary is ch1 sec ch 2, still 50 Hz but with a ferrite core from an antenna unit.

 

 

here the voltage magnification is 6426 times. I have just discovered that the setting in all the above measurements of the probes was on x10 so that reduces the magnification to 642 times

When I run at the resonant frequency I expect different results. I don't think I need a ferrite as the response did not change at frequencies of above around 10 KHz and above with my previous tests.

The current taken by the primary at 50 Hz was 3.2 Amp.

The primary is 6 T and the secondary, I think was 18000T 0.170 mm wire and the feedback winding 6 T 2 mm wire

Primary inductance 8uH Secondary inductance 4.5 H, the self resonant frequency of the secondary was 23 KHz but I did get another peak at 7 KHz.

27/07/2013 17:17

The above coil failed when excited at resonance.

 

I measured the output voltage of each plasma generator and I found that the PW12 gave 20KV at 40 KHz and the lighting machine gave a fast pulse that my scope could no pick of 80KV. Each was into a 1M load an oscilloscope was the measuring instrument.

31/07/2013 16:40:56

I used the 504 T coil wound on a 22 mm diameter x 54 mm long former with 0.9mm wire and evacuated the tube. The winding was tuned with a 30,000pF capacitor consisting of 3 10,000pF capacitors in parallel.

 

I tuned on the high voltage high frequency power supply and displayed the oscilloscope trace:

 

31-7-2013 hv hf 504t 30000pf small.jpg

I then turned off the psu and noticed that there was still a trace.

 

31-7-2013  oscillator off still spikes.jpg

 

This stopped when the pressure rose.

 

This does seem to be what we are looking for.

 

My original observation is that an evacuated tube filled with hydrogen and sealed did this when placed in the coil from a demountable mains transformer.

 

I started it by rubbing it with paper to get an electric discharge. It was low level but went on several days.

03/06/2013 22:20:42

Reactors can be small:

 

 

This is made from a coil of 1000T 0.170 mm wire on a sewing machine spool.

 

 

About 2 from Ebay

 

Here is the calculated value of the power generated

 

diameter of wire in mm 0.170

diameter of former in mm 8.1

length of former in mm 8.9

number of turns 1000

Turns per layer 52.3529412

Number of Layers 19.1011236

Diameter of coil 14.594382 mm

Length of Wire 38.3876744 Meters

resistance of winding 28.4127564 Ohm

Inductance of winding by simple formula 0.72757834e-2

new turns 1=y 2=n 2

Inductance by measurement 5E-6

Resonant Frequency Hz 40000

capacitance by resonance formula 3.1662871 uF

Capacitance 3.1662871 uF

correct ? 1=n 2=y 2

Dynamic impedance 0.55578439e-1

Resonant frequency is 40000

1 for exit 2 for loop for another capacitance 1

Q 0.44227917e-1

Winding Mass 0.77896337e-2 Kg

Rms Potential 5

Half Wavelength 0.00445

Velocity 356.0

Peak Potential 7.0

Peak Current 0.2461276

Rms Current 0.17580543

Peak Ampere Turns 246.127604

Plasma Current 246.127604

Plasma Current Density 1.65928722e8 Amp per meter^2, near centre

Ion Pressure of Plasma 1.64753139e10 Pa

Power lost through resistance 1.22943615 Watt

Power Generated if Deuterium 2.27681908e13 Watt

Power Generated by natural hydrogen 546436.578 Watt

1 exit 2 loop 1

1 exit 2 again 1

 

Like all the others the time the reaction runs for will depend on the pressure of the gas and the volume of the reaction chamber.

This is the power possible but to get it into use an additional pick up winding has to collect the power from the reactor tube containing the single turn of plasma.

The current in the single turn is about 200 A but the voltage around the turn is only about 5 mV so to extract the power a copper winding has to load the loop so that more power is transferred. If 50 volt is required that 10,000 T is required and if the power is to be 50 KW then the current capacity must be: 1000 A. This would be a massive engineering job. Since the photon pick up is to do with the length of the wire then if the outer coil diameter was 8 meters then only 10 turns are needed carrying 1000 Amp. This is doable.

06/08/2013 22:11:55

I did some more ionization experiments, This time I used the ionization wire down the outside of the wire. I could see no glow at all with the high frequency high voltage PSU unit but with the "Tesla Lightning Machine" I got immediate results.

Experimental set up. The Lighting Machine is in the foreground.

These three images were shot with the digital camera (Samsung WB15DF) on manual

The light on the left is the PCB board I used as the ground plane and the right hand light is the ligt from the reaction tube with the ionisation wire energised. By eye the glow extended down the tube.

I used the three stage vacuum pump. I have no idea of the vacuum except that was better than 30".

The arrangement of the ionisation wire.

 

Reactor 2 construction
 

Experiments continued

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27/09/2013 10:35